Korean Clinical Psychology Association

Journal Archive

Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology - Vol. 37 , No. 4

[ Original Article ]
Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology - Vol. 37 , No. 4 , pp.540-557
ISSN: 2733-4538 (Online)
publication date 30 Nov 2018
Received 31 Dec 2017 Revised 14 Aug 2018 Accepted 22 Aug 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.15842/kjcp.2018.37.4.007

주제통각검사를 활용한 사회인지와 대상관계 척도 타당화 연구
이종환 1 ; 임종민 2 ; 장문선 2,
1육군사관학교 심리경영학과
2경북대학교 심리학과

Validating the Korean Version of the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale Using the Thematic Apperception Test
Jonghwan Lee1 ; Jongmin Lim2 ; Mun-Seon Chang2,
1Department of Psychology and Management, Korea Military Academy, Seoul
2Department of Psychology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea
Correspondence to : Mun-Seon Chang, Department of Psychology, Kyungpook National University, 80 Daehak-ro, Buk-gu, Daegu, Korea; E-mail: moonsun@knu.ac.kr


© 2018 Korean Clinical Psychology Association
Funding Information ▼

초록

사회인지와 대상관계 척도(Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale – Global rating method, SCORS-G)는 이야기 자료를 활용하여 대인관계 기능과 관련된 다양한 인지적, 정서적 측면을 평가하는 채점 체계다. 주제통각검사 도판(1, 2, 3BM, 4, 13MF, 12M, 14)을 활용한 SCORS-G의 타당화를 목적으로 본 연구를 수행하였다. 대학생 215명을 대상으로 성격(병리), 대인관계문제, 인지 및 정서 문제를 알아보는 설문조사와 주제통각검사를 실시한 후, 채점 기준에 따라 평정한 결과를 바탕으로 SCORS-G의 신뢰도와 타당도를 검증하였다. SCORS-G의 8가지 차원에 관한 평정자 간 신뢰도는 대체로 양호한 수준으로 나타났다. 이론적 배경과 선행 연구에 기반하여 인지적, 정서적 요인으로 구성된 2-요인모형을 설정하고 타당도를 검증한 결과, 모형 적합도가 만족할 만한 수준으로 나타나 SCORS-G의 요인구조가 타당함을 확인하였다. SCORS-G의 인지적, 정서적 요인은 다양한 성격 및 정신병리, 성격특성(Big-5), 대인관계문제, 인지왜곡 및 정서조절곤란과 통계적으로 유의한 관련이 있는 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구와 선행 연구의 결과를 종합하여 SCORS-G의 임상적 활용 방법과 해석지침을 제시하였으며, 연구의 함의와 한계를 논의에서 다루었다.

Abstract

The Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale-Global rating method (SCORS-G) is a coding system that assesses the cognitive and emotional aspects of interpersonal functioning in narrative materials. This study aimed to validate the Korean version of the SCORS-G using card from the Thematic Apperception Test (1, 2, 3BM, 4, 13MF, 12M, 14). The Personality Assessment Inventory, NEO-Five Factor Inventory, Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale, Difficulties in Emotional Regulation Scale, and Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) were administered to 215 undergraduate students. The reliability and validity of the SCORS-G were tested by rating TAT protocols according to the scoring criteria. The level of interrater reliability for 8 dimensions of the SCORS-G was mostly acceptable. Based on existing literature, we established a two-factor model consisting of the cognitive and emotional factors and verified a model fit using confirmatory factor analysis. As a result, the model fit was good, which suggests that the factor structure of the SCORS-G is valid. Furthermore, the cognitive and emotional factors of the SCORS-G had a significant correlation with various psychopathologies, personality traits (Big-5), interpersonal problems, cognitive distortion, and emotional dysregulation. We provide an interpretation guideline for the clinical utility of SCORS-G based on the present and previous studies, and discuss the clinical implications and limitations of this study.


Keywords: TAT, social cognition, object relations, psychopathology, interpersonal problem
키워드: 주제통각검사, 사회인지, 대상관계, 정신병리, 대인관계문제

Acknowledgments

This paper was funded by a publication grant from the Hwarangdae Institute, Korea Military Academy.


References
1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Wasington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
2. Alden, L. E., Wiggins, J. S., & Pincus, A. L. (1990). Construction of circumplex scales for the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems. Journal of personality assessment, 55(3-4), 521-536.
3. Barlow, D. H. (2004). Anxiety and its disorders: The nature and treatment of anxiety and panic. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
4. Beck, A. T. (1999). Cognitive aspects of personality disorders and their relation to syndromal disorders: A psychoevolutionary approach. In C. R. Cloninger (Ed.), Personality and Psychopathology (pp. 411-429). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
5. Bender, D. S., Morey, L. C., & Skodol, A. E. (2011). Toward a model for assessing level of personality functioning in DSM-5, Part I: A review of theory and methods. Journal of Personality Assessment, 93, 332-346.
6. Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indices in struçtual models. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 238-246.
7. Blatt, S. J. (2008). Polarities of experience: Relatedness and self-definition in personality development, psychopathology, and the therapeutic process. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
8. Bram, A. D. (2014). Object relations, interpersonal functioning, and health in a nonclinical sample: Construct validation and norms for the TAT SCORS-G. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 31, 314-342.
9. Bram, A, D., Gallant, S. J., & Segrin, C. (1999). A longitudinal investigation of object relations: Child-rearing antecedents, stability in adulthood, and construct validation. Journal of Research in Personality, 33, 158-188.
10. Cho, Y. R. (2007). Assessing emotion dysregulation: Psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 26, 1015-1038.
11. Clark, L. A., Watons, D., & Mineka, S. (1994). Temperament, personality, and the mood and anxiety disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 103-116.
12. Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Normal personality assessment in clinical practice: The NEO Personality Inventory. Psychological assessment, 4, 5-13.
13. Couture, S. M., Penn, D. L., & Roberts, D. L. (2006). The functional significance of social cognition in schizophrenia: A review. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 32(Suppl.1), 44-63.
14. Dana, R. H. (2005). Multicultural assessment: Principles, applications, and examples. New York, NY: Routledge.
15. Defife, J. A., Goldberg, M., & Westen, D. (2015). Dimensional assessment of self-and interpersonal functioning in adolescents: Implications for DSM-5’s general definition of personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders, 29, 248-260.
16. Exner, J., Exner, J., Levy, A., Exner, J., Groth-Marnat, G., Wood, J. M., . . . Garb, H. N. (2008). The Rorschach: A comprehensive system, Vol 1: The Rorschach, basic foundations and principles of interpretation. New York, NY: Wiley and Sons.
17. Fiske, S. T., & Taylor, S. E. (2013). Social cognition: From brains to culture (3th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
18. Fossati, A., Somma, A., Krueger, R. F., Markon, K. E., & Borroni, S. (2017). On the relationships between DSM‐5 dysfunctional personality traits and social cognition deficits: A study in a sample of consecutively admitted Italian psychotherapy patients. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 24, 1421-1434.
19. Foucault, M. (1976). Mental illness and psychology. New York, NY: Harper & Row.
20. Fowler, J. C., Ackerman, S. J., Speanburg, S., Bailey, A., Blagys, M., & Conklin, A. C. (2004). Personality and symptom change in treatment-refractory inpatients: Evaluation of the phase model of change using Rorschach, TAT, and DSM-IV Axis V. Journal of Personality Assessment, 83, 306-322.
21. Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., & Brennan, K. A. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350-365.
22. Gratz, K. L., & Roemer, L. (2004). Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation: Development, factor structure, and initial validation of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 26, 41-54.
23. Gray, J. L. (1998). A study of the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) with Japanese subjects. ISBN: 1-58112-042-7, Dissertation.com.
24. Haggerty, G., Blanchard, M., Baity, M. R., Defife, J. A., Stein, M. B., Siefert, C. J., . . . Zodan, J. (2015). Clinical validity of a dimensional assessment of self-and interpersonal functioning in adolescent inpatients. Journal of Personality Assessment, 97, 3-12.
25. Hamamci, Z., & Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2004). The Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale: Development and psychometric characteristics. Psychological Reports, 95, 291-303.
26. Hamilton, N. G. (2007). Self and others: Object relations theory in practice (J. Kim, C. Kim, & J. Lee, Trans.). Seoul, Korea: Hakjisa. (Original work published in 1988).
27. Heaton, R. K., Chelune, G. J., Tulley, J. L., Kay, G. G., & Curtiss, G. (1993). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test manual: Revised and expanded. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
28. Hibbard, S., Hilsenroth, M. J., Hibbard, J. K., & Nash, M. R. (1995). A validity study of two projective object representations measures. Psychological Assessment, 7, 432-439.
29. Hilsenroth, M., Stein, M., & Pinsker, J. (2004). Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale: Global rating method (SCORS-G). Unpublished manuscript, The Derner Institute of Advanced Psychological Studies, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY.
30. Hilsenroth, M., Stein, M., & Pinsker, J. (2007). Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale: Global rating method (SCORS-G; 3rd ed.). Unpublished manuscript, The Derner Institute of Advanced Psychological Studies, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY.
31. Hong, C., & Park, J. (2017). A study of the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) in Korean college students. Clinical Psychology in Korea: Research and Practice, 3, 277-301.
32. Hong, S. H. (2000). The criteria for selecting appropriate fit indices in structural equation modeling and their rationales. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 19, 161-177.
33. Horowitz, L. M. (1988). Inventory of Interpersonal Problems: Scoring procedures. Unpublished manuscript, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
34. Horowitz, L. M., Rosenberg, S. E., Baer, B. A., Ureño, G., & Villaseñor, V. S. (1988). Inventory of interpersonal problems: Psychometric properties and clinical applications. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 56, 885-892.
35. Kim, Y. H., Jin, Y., Cho, Y., Kwon, J. H., Hong, S. H., & Park, E. Y. (2002). Validation of Korean Inventory of Interpersonal Problems: KIIP-C and KIIP-PD. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 21, 391-411.
36. Kim, Y. H., Kim, J. H., Oh, S. W., Lim, Y. R., & Hong, S. H. (2001). Standardization study of Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI): Reliability and validity. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 20, 311-329.
37. Le Berre, A. P., Fama, R., & Sullivan, E. V. (2017). Executive functions, memory, and social cognitive deficits and recovery in chronic alcoholism: A critical review to inform future research. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 41, 1432-1443.
38. Lee, K. I. (1995). Factor structure and maladaptive group profiles of the revised NEO Personality Inventory for Korean. Doctor’s Dissertation. Pusan National University, Busan, Korea.
39. Lee, T. Y., & Sim, H. S. (2011). The mediating effect of internalized shame in the relationship between childhood trauma and early adulthood interpersonal problem. Korean Journal of Counseling, 12, 2273-2291.
40. Leigh, J., Westen, D., Barends, A., Mendel, M. J., & Byers, S. (1992). The assessment of complexity of representations of people using TAT and interview data. Journal of Personality, 60, 809-834.
41. Lewis, K. C., Meehan, K. B., Cain, N. M., Wong, P. S., Clemence, A. J., Stevens, J., & Tillman, J. G. (2016). Impairments in object relations and chronicity of suicidal behavior in individuals with borderline personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders, 30, 19-34.
42. Lukowitsky, M. R., & Pincus, A. L. (2011). The pantheoretical nature of mental representations and their ability to predict interpersonal adjustment in a nonclinical sample. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 28, 48-74.
43. Lysaker, P. H., Dimaggio, G., Daroyanni, P., Buck, K. D., LaRocco, V. A., Carcione, A., & Nicolò, G. (2010). Assessing metacognition in schizophrenia with the Metacognition Assessment Scale: Associations with the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 83, 303-315.
44. Moon, S. B. (2009). Basic conceptions and applications of Structural Equation Modeling. Seoul, Korea: Hakjisa.
45. Morey, L. (1991). Personality Assessment Inventory professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
46. Morey, L. C. (2003). Essentials of PAI assessment. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons.
47. Mullin, A. S. J., Hilsenroth, M. J., Gold, J., & Farber, B. A. (2016). Changes in object relations over the course of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 24, 501-511.
48. Murray, H. A. (1943). Manual for the Thematic Apperception Test. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
49. Nettle, D., & Liddle, B. (2008). Agreeableness is related to social‐cognitive, but not social‐perceptual, theory of mind. European Journal of Personality, 22, 323-335.
50. Newbury-Helps, J., Feigenbaum, J., & Fonagy, P. (2017). Offenders with antisocial personality disorder display more impairments in mentalizing. Journal of Personality Disorders, 31, 232-255.
51. Niec, L. N., & Russ, S. W. (2002). Children’s internal representations, empathy, and fantasy play: A validity study of the SCORS-Q. Psychological Assessment, 14, 331-338.
52. Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
53. Pietrzak, J., Downey, G., & Ayduk, O. (2005). Rejection sensitivity as an interpersonal vulnerability. In M. Baldwin (Ed.), Interpersonal Cognition (pp. 62-84). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
54. Porcerelli, J. H., Cogan, R., & Hibbard, S. (1998). Cognitive and affective representations of people and MCMI-II Personality Psychopathology. Journal of Personality Assessment, 70, 535-540.
55. Porcerelli, J. H., Shahar, G., Blatt, S. J., Ford, R. Q., Mezza, J. A., & Greenlee, L. M. (2006). Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale: Convergent validity and changes following intensive inpatient treatment. Personality and Individual Differences, 41, 407-417.
56. Preißler, S., Dziobek, I., Ritter, K., Heekeren, H. R., & Roepke, S. (2010). Social cognition in borderline personality disorder: Evidence for disturbed recognition of the emotions, thoughts, and intentions of others. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 4, 182.
57. Roepke, S., Vater, A., Preißler, S., Heekeren, H. R., & Dziobek, I. (2013). Social cognition in borderline personality disorder. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 6, 195.
58. Sharp, C., Fonagy, P., & Goodyer, I. (2008). Social cognition and developmental psychopathology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
59. Shrout, P. E., & Fleiss, J. L. (1979). Intraclass correlations: Uses in assessing rater reliability. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 420-428.
60. Siefert, C. J., Stein, M. B., Slavin-Mulford, J., Sinclair, S. J., Haggerty, G., & Blais, M. A. (2016). Estimating the effects of Thematic Apperception Test card content on SCORS-G ratings: Replication with a nonclinical Sample. Journal of Personality Assessment, 98, 598-607.
61. Skodol, A. E., Bender, D. S., Morey, L. C., Clark, L. A., Oldham, J. M., Alarcon, R. D., . . . Siever, L. J. (2011). Personality disorder types proposed for DSM-5. Journal of Personality Disorders, 25, 136-169.
62. Skodol, A. E., Clark, L. A., Bender, D. S., Krueger, R. F., Morey, L. C., Verheul, R., . . . Oldham, J. M. (2011). Proposed changes in personality and personality disorder assessment and diagnosis for DSM-5 Part I: Description and rationale. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 2, 4-22.
63. Stein, M., Hilsenroth, M., Slavin-Mulford, J., & Pinsker, J. (2011). Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale: Global rating method (SCORS-G; 4th ed.). Unpublished manuscript, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
64. Stein, M. B., Siefert, C. J., Stewart, R. V., & Hilsenroth, M. J. (2011). Relationship between the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale (SCORS) and attachment style in a clinical sample. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 18, 512-523.
65. Stein, M. B., & Slavin-Mulford, J. (2017). The Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale - Global rating method (SCORS-G): A comprehensive guide for clinicians and researchers. New York, NY: Routledge.
66. Stein, M. B., Slavin-Mulford, J., Siefert, C. J., Sinclair, S. J., Renna, M., Malone, J., . . . Blais, M. A. (2014). SCORS-G stimulus characteristics of select Thematic Apperception Test cards. Journal of Personality Assessment, 96, 339-349.
67. Stein, M. B., Slavin-Mulford, J., Siefert, C. J., Sinclair, S. J., Smith, M., Chung, W. J., . . . Blais, M. A. (2015). External validity of SCORS-G ratings of Thematic Apperception Test narratives in a sample of outpatients and inpatients. Rorschachiana. 36, 58-81.
68. Stein, M. B., Slavin-Mulford, J., Sinclair, S. J., Chung, W. J., Roche, M., Denckla, C., & Blais, M. A. (2016). Extending the use of the SCORS-G composite ratings in assessing Level of Personality Organization. Journal of Personality Assessment, 100, 166-175.
69. Stein, M. B., Slavin-Mulford, J., Sinclair, S. J., Siefert, C. J., & Blais, M. A. (2012). Exploring the construct validity of the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale in a clinical sample. Journal of Personality Assessment, 94, 533-540.
70. Stein, M. I. (1981). The Thematic Apperception Test: An introductory manual for its clinical use with adults (2nd ed.). Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.
71. Teglasi, H. (2016). Essentials of TAT and other storytelling assessments (2nd ed.) (M. Chang & J. Lee, Trans.). Seoul, Korea: Pakhaksa. (Original work published in 2010).
72. Tucker, L. R., & Lewis, C. (1973). A reliability coefficient for maximum likelihood factor analysis. Psychometrika, 38, 1-10.
73. Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1997). Extraversion and its positive emotional core. In Hogan, R., Johnson, J. & Briggs, S. (Eds.), Handbook of personality psychology (pp. 767-793). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
74. Wechsler, D. (1999). Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment.
75. Westen, D. (1991a). Clinical assessment of object relations using the TAT. Journal of Personality Assessment, 56, 56-74.
76. Westen, D. (1991b). Social cognition and object relations. Psychological Bulletin, 109, 429-455.
77. Westen, D. (1995). Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale: Q-sort for projective stories (SCORS-Q). Unpublished manuscript, Department of Psychiatry, Cambridge Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA.
78. Westen, D., Barends, A., Leigh, M., Mendel, M., & Silbert, D. (1990). Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale (SCORS): Manual for coding interview data. Unpublished manuscript, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
79. Westen, D., Lohr, N., Silk, K. R., Gold, L., & Kerber, K. (1990). Object relations and social cognition in borderlines, major depressives, and normals: A Thematic Apperception Test analysis. Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2, 355-364.
80. Westen, D., Ludolph, P., Lerner, H., Ruffins, S., & Wiss, F. C. (1990). Object relations in borderline adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 338-348.
81. Westen, D., Silk, K., Lohr, N., & Kerber, K. (1985). Object relations and social cognition: TAT scoring manual. Unpublished manual, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
82. Young, J. (1990). Cognitive therapy for personality disorders: A schema focused approach. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resources Exchange.
83. Zadeh, Z. Y., Im-Bolter, N., & Cohen, N. J. (2007). Social cognition and externalizing psychopathology: An investigation of the mediating role of language. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 141-152.
84. Zillig, L. M. P., Hemenover, S. H., & Dienstbier, R. A. (2002). What do we assess when we assess a Big 5 trait? A content analysis of the affective, behavioral, and cognitive processes represented in Big 5 personality inventories. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 847-858.