Korean Clinical Psychology Association

Journal Archive

Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology - Vol. 37 , No. 2

[ Original Article ]
Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology - Vol. 37 , No. 2 , pp.165-176
ISSN: 2466-197X (Online)
publication date 31 May 2018
Received 30 Nov 2017 Revised 25 Feb 2018 Accepted 26 Feb 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.15842/kjcp.2018.37.2.004

고령자의 스마트기기 대화형 SNS 사용과 우울 간의 관계에서 자기효능감과 사회적지지의 매개 효과
최윤희 ; 김정규
성신여자대학교 심리학과

The Mediating Effects of Self-Efficacy and Social Support on the Relationship between Interactive SNS Usage of Smart Devices and Depression in the Elderly
Yunhui Chey ; Jungkyu Kim
Department of Psychology, Sungshin University, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to : Yunhui Chey, Department of Psychology, Sungshin University, 2 Bomun-ro 34da-gil, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, Korea; E-mail: yhchey@gmail.com


© 2018 Korean Clinical Psychology Association

초록

본 연구는 스마트기기 대화형 SNS 사용 정도가 고령자 우울에 미치는 영향을 자기효능감과 사회적지지의 매개효과를 통해 살펴보았다. 스마트기기 사용 척도, 자기효능감 척도, 사회적지지 척도, 한국형 노인우울검사 및 인구통계학적 질문을 실시하였다. 총 254명의 자료가 수집되었으며, 최종 회귀분석에는 133명의 자료가 포함되었다. 본 연구의 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 첫째, 스마트기기 사용 집단은 미사용 집단에 비해 우울수준이 낮고 자기효능감 수준이 높은 것으로 나타났다. 또한 스마트기기 대화형 SNS 사용은 우울수준을 낮추고 자기효능감을 높이는 데에 관련이 있는 것으로 나타났다. 둘째, 스마트기기 대화형 SNS 사용 정도는 자기효능감과 통계적으로 유의한 정적상관을 보였다. 또한 스마트기기 대화형 SNS 사용 정도, 자기효능감 및 지각된 사회적지지는 우울과 통계적으로 유의한 부적 상관을 보였다. 셋째, 스마트기기 대화형 SNS 사용 정도와 우울 간의 관계에서 자기효능감의 매개효과가 유의하였으나 사회적지지는 유의하지 않았다. 이러한 연구 결과를 종합하여 본 연구의 시사점과 의의, 제한점 및 후속연구 방향에 관하여 논의하였다.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between interactive SNS usage of smart devices and depression in the elderly; and to investigate the mediating effect of self-efficacy and social support on this relationship. A Smart Devices Usage Scale, Self-Efficacy Scale, Social Support Scale, Korean Form of Geriatric Depression Scale, and a Demographic Questionnaires surveys were conducted. A total of 254 cases were included in this study, with 133 cases being included in the final regression analysis. The results of the study are as follows: First, the smart devices using group experienced a lower level of depression, and a higher level of self-efficacy than the smart devices unused group. In addition, interactive SNS use of smart devices was shown to be related to increased self-efficacy and lower depression levels. Second, interactive SNS use of smart devices was found to have a statistically significant positive correlation with self-efficacy. Interactive SNS use of smart devices, self-efficacy, and perceived social support were found to have a statistically significant negative correlation with depression. Third, the mediating effect of self-efficacy on depression was statistically significant, but social support was not. The limitations of this study are discussed along with some suggestions for future research and strategies.


Keywords: geriatric depression, SNS usage, self-efficacy, social support, mediating effect
키워드: 노년기 우울, SNS 사용, 자기효능감, 사회적지지, 매개효과

Acknowledgments

This paper is a revision and amendment of the first author’s master’s thesis.


References
1. Bae, J. H. (2009). The effect of ADL and IADL on the depression of the older-elderly: Focusing on the mediating effect of social activity participation and elder abuse. Journal of the Korean Gerontological Society, 29, 353-368.
2. Bandura, A. (1971). Social learning theory, New York, NY: General Learning Press.
3. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control, New York: W.H.Freeman.
4. Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory of mass communication. Media psychology, 3, 265-299. doi: 10.1207/S1532785XMEP0303_03.
5. Bang, Y. S., & Nam, K. M. (2009). The influence of sexual attitude and sexual need coping behavior of the elderly on their subjective happiness - Focusing on the mediating effects of health and depression. Journal of Welfare for the Aged, 46, 215-238.
6. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological re-search: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of personality and social psychology, 51, 1173. Retrieved from http://www.public.asu.edu/~davidpm/classes/psy536/Baron.pdf.
7. Beisser, A. (1970). The Paradoxical Theory of Change. In J. Fagan & I.L. Shepherd (Eds), Gestalt Therapy Now. New York, NY: Harper & Row.
8. Chae, S. W., & Oh, K. O. (1991). A study on social support and the quality of life in the eldely (Master's thesis, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea).
9. Chang, M. O. (2004). The effect of older people's internet uses and gratification on social activities. Andragogy Today: International Journal of Adult & Continuing Education, 7, 133-154.
10. Chang, S. J., & Lee, J. J. (2010). Computer use and social participation in old age: Analysis according to the computer use patterns of young old. Korean Journal of Social Welfare, 62, 353-374.
11. Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological bulletin, 112, 155.
12. Cotten, S. R., Ford, G., Ford, S., & Hale, T. M. (2014). Internet use and depression among retired older adults in the United States: A longitudinal analysis. Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 69, 763-771. doi:10.1093/ geronb/gbu018.
13. Curran, P. J., West, S. G., & Finch, J. F. (1996). The robustness of test statistics to nonnormality and specification error in confirmatory factor analysis. Psychological methods, 1, 16. Retrieved from http://www.unc.edu/~curran/pdfs/Curran,West%26Finch(1996).pdf.
14. Doryab, A., Min, J. K., Wiese, J., Zimmerman, J., & Hong, J. (2014, June). Detection of behavior change in people with depression. In Workshops at the Twenty-Eighth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence. Retrieved from http://www.aaai.org/ocs/index.php/WS/AAAIW14/paper/viewFile/8850/8303.
15. Hinrichsen, G. A., & Clougherty, K. F. (2012). Interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed older adults (K. Lim. & J. K. Kim, Trans.). Seoul: Hakjisa. (Original work published in 2006).
16. Ju, T. H. (2011). The effects of social support, self-efficacy, and stress on depression of the elderly: A comparative study with different types of household environments (Master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/search/detail/DetailView.do?p_mat_type=be54d9b8bc7cdb09&control_no=ec43035ffecda5dfffe0bdc3ef48d419.
17. Jung, Y. M. (2007). Health status and associated factors of depression according to depression in elderly women, Journal of the Korean Gerontological Society, 27, 71-86.
18. Jung, I. K., Kwak, D. I., Cho, S. H., & Lee, H. S. (1998). A preliminary study on standardization of Korean form of Geriatric Depression Scale (KGDS). J Korean Neuropsychiatr Assoc, 37, 340-351.
19. Kang, S. K. (2009). The effects of self-efficacy and social support on the quality of life of the elderly with depression. Journal of the Korean Gerontological Society, 29, 629-643.
20. Kang, W. S. (2013). Effects of smartphone information use and performance on life satisfaction among the elderly (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/search/detail/DetailView.do?p_mat_type=be54d9b8bc7cdb09&control_no=731fb18302699c8bffe0bdc3ef48d419.
21. Kang, H. W., & Kim, J. T. (2009). The effect of perceived social support and self-efficiency on health promoting behavior of the elderly. Journal of Leisure and Recreation Studies, 33, 57-68.
22. Kang, Y. H., Kim, M. Y., Lee, G. J., Jung, D. Y., & Ma, R. W. (2012). A study of social support, loneliness, sleep quality, and perceived health status among community-dwelling older adults. Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing, 26, 303-313.
23. Kang, Y. H., Kim, G. J., Shin, S. H., Ahn, B. J., Hwang, B. I., & Hong, S. K. (2006). Analysis of cell phone menu usage by age. Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, 410-414.
24. Kim, E. H. (2004). The mediating effects of social support and self-efficacy on subjective well-being in elderly (Master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/search/detail/DetailView.do?p_mat_type=be54d9b8bc7cdb09&control_no=88e09d4ef004bd25ffe0bdc3ef48d419.
25. Kim, K. I. (1977). Clinical study of primary depressive symptom: Part I.: adjustment of Hamilton's rating scale for depression. Journal of the Neuropsychiatrics Association, 16, 36-45.
26. Kim, M. J. (2014). Constructing the self actualization model of the older adults (Doctoral dissertation), Retrieved from, Kyunghee University, Seoul, Korea). http://www.riss.kr/search/detail/DetailView.do?p_mat_type=be54d9b8bc7cdb09&control_no=c9a6c4b7b5d9a32dffe0bdc3ef48d419.
27. Kim, Y. J. (2009). Mediation effects of social supports on the decrease of depression of the rural elderly. Journal of Welfare for the Aged, 46, 77-104.
28. Kim, Y. J., & Choi, H. K. (2000). Family caregiving services as social support for the eldery. Journal of the Korean Gerontological Society, 20, 209-223.
29. Kim, H. J., & Ju, K. H. (2008). A study on life satisfaction in old age: Applying ‘Successful aging scale’ for Korean elderly. Journal of Welfare for the Aged, 41, 125-158.
30. Kim, H. S., & Kim, B. S. (2007). The effects of self-esteem on the relationship between the elderly stress and depression. Journal of the Korean Gerontological Society, 27, 23-37.
31. Kim, K. H., & Kim, J. H. (2008). The effects of self-esteem on the relationship between the elderly depression and life satisfaction. Family and Culture, 20, 95-116.
32. Kim, H. N., & Seo, H. L. (2010). The effects of self-efficacy on the depression of lonely frail elders. Journal of Welfare for the Aged, 48, 59-82.
33. Kim, S. Y., Jang, Y. E., & Seo, H. J. (2011). The influence of marital satisfaction on the suicidal ideation of the elderly: Focusing on mediating effect of depression. Journal of the Korean Gerontological Society, 31, 305-319.
34. Kim, D. B., Kim, S. B., & Kim, S. J. (2011). The research of ability to use internet, interpersonal skill, and social activity among the 50's and 60's in Seoul: Latent mean analysis. Journal of the Korean Gerontological Society, 31, 733-749.
35. Kim, S. Y., Kim, S. G., & Seo, H. J. (2011). Depression and resilience in late life widowhood : Testing mediation model of social support. Health and Social Welfare Review, 31, 165-196.
36. Kim, D. B., Kim, S. B., & Shin, S. M. (2012). The effects of social participation on the depression of the spouseless elderly: The mediating effect of social support and self-efficacy. Journal of the Korean Gerontological Society, 32, 289-303.
37. Kim, D. B., Shin, S. M., & Jung, K. H. (2012). The effects of volunteering participation characteristics on the depression of older people: The mediating effect of ego integrity. Journal of Welfare for the Aged, 57, 7-28.
38. Ko, M. S., & Seo, I. K. (2011). Influences of the elderly's health status upon their stress and depression and moderation effects of social supports. Korean Public Health Research, 37, 1-14.
39. Kwon, T. Y. (2009). The effects of stress factors and self-esteem on depressive symptoms among the young-old, the old-old, the oldest-old groups: The mediation role of two dimension self-esteem. Korean Journal of Social Welfare Studies, 40, 163-196.
40. Lee, I. J. (2007). Sex differences in the effects of psychosocial factors on depression and life satisfaction of older persons. Journal of Welfare for the Aged, 36, 159-179.
41. Lee, S. M. (2012). A study on the socio-psychological experience by internet usage of the elderly: Focused on interpersonal relationship and life satisfaction (Master’s thesis). Konkuk University, Seoul, Korea.
42. Lee, Y. J., & Kim, T. H. (1999). A study on the buffering effect of social support on the stress of the elderly who lives alone. Journal of the Korean Gerontological Society, 19, 79-93.
43. Lee, B. J., & Myeong, S. H. (2010). Exploratory study on the relationship between internet use and social network of elderly people: Focusing metropolitan cities. The Korean Journal of Local Government Studies, 14, 269-293.
44. Lim, J. Y. (2001). Relation among attachment type, social support, subjective well-being in elderly (Master’s thesis). Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea.
45. Ly, H. (2014). Smartphone-supported versus regular face-to-face behavioral activation treatment for depression: A randomized controlled non-inferiority trial. In Medicine 2.0 Conference. JMIR Publications Inc., Toronto, Canada. Abstract retrieved from http://www.medicine20congress.com/ocs/index.php/med/med2014/paper/view/2112.
46. Min, S. K., & Kim, K. H. (1978). Somatic symptoms in depression. Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association, 17, 149-154.
47. Ministry of Health and Welfare. (2014). Survey questionnaire on elderly in 2014. Retrieved from https://welfare24image.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/32468794654646.pdf.
48. Ministry of Science & ICT. (2013). 2013 Survey on actual situation of information culture. Retrieved from http://www.msip.go.kr.
49. Ministry of the Interior and Safety. (2017). At the end of August 17, the number of resident population 51.175 million: The population aged 65 or older accounted for 14.0% of the total population (7,257,288). Retrieved from http://www.mois.go.kr/frt/bbs/type010/commonSelectBoardArticle.do?bbsId=BBSMSTR_000000000008&nttId=59453.
50. Moon, M. H. (2012). Recognition of smart media by parents and infant usage (Master’s thesis, Ulsan University, Ulsan, Korea).
51. Moon, N. S., & Nam, K. M. (2008). The relationship between the death preparation of the aged and successful aging - Focusing on depression and death anxiety as mediators. Journal of the Korean Gerontological Society, 28, 1227-1248.
52. Paik, J. E., & Choi, H. K. (2005). Successful aging according to Korean elderly: The definition, types, and predict-ing variables. Journal of Korean Home Management Association, 23, 1-16.
53. Park, J.W. (1985). A study to development a scale of Social Support. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://dcollection.yonsei.ac.kr/public_resource/pdf/000000133547_20180519004305.pdf.
54. Park, K. M. (1994). A study on pepression in old age according to self-efficacy and perceived social support (Master’s thesis). Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea.
55. Park, S. M. (2011). Effects of health status on life - Satisfaction of the elderly - Focusing on the mediating and moderating effects of social activities and economic activities-. Journal of Welfare for the Aged, 53, 305-332.
56. Park, E. S., Kim, S. J., Kim, S. I., Chun, Y. J., Lee, P. S., Kim, H. J., & Han, K. S. (1998). A study of factors influ-encing health promoting behavior and quality of life in the elderly. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 28, 638-649.
57. Seo, H. M. (2001). Construction of health promoting behaviors model in elderly (Dctoral dissertation). Re-trieved from http://www.riss.kr/search/detail/DetailView.do?p_mat_type=be54d9b8bc7cdb09&control_no=52b673424417dd11.
58. Seo, Y. S. (2010). Testing mediator and moderator effects in counseling psychology research: Conceptual dis-tinction and statistical considerations. The Korean Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 22, 1147-1168.
59. Sherer, M., Maddux, J. E., Mercandante, B., Prentice-Dunn, S., Jacobs, B., & Rogers, R. W. (1982). The self-efficacy scale: Construction and validation. Psychological reports, 51, 663-671. Retrieved from http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Mark_Sherer/publication/259982132_The_Self-effica-cy_Scale_Construction_and_validation/links/02bfe50fda7607fa2e000000.pdf?ev=pub_ext_doc_dl&origin=publication_detail&inViewer=true.
60. Shin, C. H. (2010). The study on effects of objective life attributes on depression of elderly mediated by life-satisfaction. Journal of the Korean Gerontological Society, 30, 453-469.
61. Sung, H. Y., & Cho, H. S. (2005). A study of successful aging model: Using the components of Rowe & Kahn. Journal of the Korean Gerontological Society, 26, 105-123.
62. UN. (2011). World population prospects: The 2010 revision, highlights and advance tables. (Working Paper No ES/P/WP. 220). New York, NY: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.
63. Yesavage, J. A., Brink, T. L., Rose, T. L., Lum, O., Huang, V., Adey, M., & Leirer, V. O. (1983). Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: A preliminary report. Journal of psychiatric research, 17, 37-49. Retrieved from http://ac.els-cdn.com/0022395682900334/1-s2.0-0022395682900334-main.pdf?_tid=aa91a674-8f7e-11e4-abe2-00000aacb362&acdnat=1419873671_641ff858fba0640ae981ee2b69c6fcf5.
64. Yim, E. S., & Lee, K. J. (2003). Effect of physical ability, depression and social support on quality of life in low income elders living at home, Journal of Korean Gerontological Nursing, 5, 38-49.
65. Yontef, G. M. (1993). Awareness, dialogue and process: essays on Gestalt therapy.
66. Yoon, S. D., & Han, G. H. (2004). Productive activities and psychological well-being of the rural elderly in Korea. Journal of the Korean Gerontological Society, 24, 57-77.