Korean Clinical Psychology Association

Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology - Vol. 35 , No. 4

[ Original Article ]
Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology - Vol. 35 , No. 4 , pp.831-842
ISSN: 2733-4538 (Online)
publication date Nov 2016
Received 21 Jul 2016 Accepted 02 Sep 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.15842/kjcp.2016.35.4.011

인터넷 게임장애 구조적 면담검사(Structured Clinical Interview for Internet Gaming Disorder, SCI-IGD) 타당화 및 DSM-5 진단준거의 진단적 유용성 검증: 성인을 대상으로
조성훈 ; 권정혜
고려대학교 심리학과

The Validation of Structured Clinical Interview for Internet Gaming Disorder (SCI-IGD) and Evaluation of the DSM-5 Internet Gaming Disorder Criteria: Findings from a Community Sample of Adults
Sung Hoon Cho ; Jung-Hye Kwon
Department of Psychology, Korea University, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to : Jung-Hye Kwon, Department of Psychology, Korea University, 145 Anam-ro, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 02841, Korea; E-mail: junghye@korea.ac.kr


개정된 DSM-5에 인터넷 게임장애가 앞으로의 연구를 위해 포함되면서 이전에 비해 보다 합의된 명칭과 진단준거에 따른 진단 및 평가가 가능하게 되었지만, 여전히 진단준거의 적절성/타당성과 관련한 논의가 필요한 상태이다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 우선 DSM-5 진단준거에 맞춰 개발해 청소년을 대상으로 타당화를 거친 인터넷 게임장애 구조적 면담검사(SCI-IGD)를 성인을 대상으로 실시하여 타당화하고, 이어서 DSM-5에 제시된 9개 진단준거의 진단적 특성을 살펴보고자 하였다. 만 19세 이상 38세 미만의 성인 99명을 대상으로 개별면담을 통해 SCI-IGD를 실시하였고 스트레스 척도, 간이 증상평가 척도, 정서조절곤란 척도가 포함된 자기보고식 설문을 작성하게 하였다. 연구 결과, SCI-IGD가 적절한 수준의 구성타당도, 수렴타당도, 변별타당도를 갖추고 있는 것으로 확인되었다. 또한 DSM-5의 9개 진단준거는 모두 유의한 수준의 문항변별력을 갖고 있었지만, 사용시간 속임, 부정적 기분 조절이 상대적으로 변별력이 가장 낮았고 내성 진단문항의 충족률이 정상군 진단군 모두에서 가장 낮은 것으로 나타났다. 끝으로 이전 연구결과와 본 연구에서 얻어진 결과를 비교하고 그 의미를 논의하였다.


The inclusion of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in the DSM-5 appendix has facilitated research on the development and validation of assessment tools of IGD. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, the validity of the Structured Clinical In-terview for IGD (SCI-IGD) was examined using a community sample of adults. Second, the diagnostic accuracy of the nine IGD criteria proposed in the DSM-5 was evaluated. A total of 99 adults participated in this study, and the administration of SCI-IGD was individually conducted, and self-report measures such as the Perceived Daily Stress Scale (on daily life and self), Brief Symptoms Inventory, and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale were also carried out. The results were as follows: 1) Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the SCI-IGD has good construct validity; and 2) 2PL-IRT showed that the “deception” and “escape” criteria have relatively low discrimination accuracy, and the probability of fulfilling “tolerance” crite-ria was lowest among the nine diagnostic criteria. Implications and suggestions for the future research were discussed.

Keywords: Internet Gaming Disorder, DSM-5, internet addiction, validity, structured clinical interveiw, SCI-IGD
키워드: 인터넷 게임 장애, DSM-5, 인터넷 중독, 척도 타당화, 타당도, 구조적 면담검사, SCI-IGD

1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.
2. Babor, T. F., Brown, J., & Del Boca, F. K. (1990). Validity of self-reports in applied research on addictive behaviors: Fact or fiction? Behavioral Assessment, 12, 5-31.
3. Babor, T. F., Steinberg, K., & Anton, R. F., & Del Boca, F. K. (2000). Talk is cheap: Measuring drinking outcomes in clinical trials. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 61, 55-63.
4. Brown, T. A. (2015). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research (2nd ed.). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
5. Byun, Y. J. (1994). The study of interrelation between parental rearing attitudes, adolescent irrational belief and stress. (Unpublished master’s thesis). University of Yonsei, Seoul, Korea.
6. Chakraborty, K., Basu, D., & Kumar, K. G. V. (2010). Internet addiction: Consensus, controversies, and the way ahead. East Asian Archives of Psychiatry, 20, 123-132.
7. Cho, H., Kwon, M., Choi, J. H., Lee, S. K., Choi, J. S., Choi, S. W., & Kim, D. J. (2014). Development of the internet addiction scale based on the internet gaming disorder criteria suggested in DSM-5. Addictive Behaviors, 39, 1361-1366.
8. Cho, Y. R. (2007). Assessing emotion dysregulation: Psychometric properties of the Korean version of the difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 26, 1015-1038.
9. Choi, H. S., Ryong, J. S., & Kim, K. H. (2013). Development and validation of the Korean game addiction scale for adults. Korean Journal of Health Psychology, 18, 709-726.
10. Cohen, J. (1992). “A power primer”. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155-159.
11. Davis, R. A. (2001). A cognitive-behavioural model of pathological Internet use. Computers in Human Behavior, 17, 187-195.
12. Del, Boca, F. K., & Noll, J. A. (2000). Truth or consequences: The validity of self-report data in health services research on addictions. Addiction, 95, 347-360.
13. DeLongis, A., Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1988). The impact of daily stress on health and mood: Psychological and social resources as mediators. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 486.
14. Derogatis, L. R., & Melisaratos, N. (1983). The Brief Symptom Inventory: An introductory report. Psychological Medicine, 3, 595-605.
15. Gentile, D., Coyne, S., Bricolo, F. (2013). Pathological technology addictions: What is scientifically known and what remains to be learned. In K. E. Dill (Ed.). The oxford handbook of media psychology (pp. 382-402). New York: Oxford University Press.
16. Goldberg, I. (1995). Internet Addiction Disorder diagnostic criteria. Retrieved from: http://users.rider.edu/~suler/psycyber/supportgp.html.
17. Gratz, K. L., & Roemer, L. (2004). Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation: Development, factor structure, and initial validation of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 26, 41-54.
18. Griffiths, M. (1996). Internet" addiction": An issue for clinical psychology? In Clinical Psychology Forum, 97, 32-36.
19. Griffiths, M. D. (2005). A “components" model of addiction within a biopsychosocial framework. Journal of Substance Use, 10, 191-197.
20. Griffiths, M. D., King, D. L., & Demetrovics, Z. (2014). DSM-5 internet gaming disorder needs a unified approach to assessment. Neuropsychiatry, 4, 1-4.
21. Griffiths, M. D., van Rooij, A. J., Kardefelt-Winther, D., Starcevic, V., Kiraly, O., Pallesen, S., . . . Demetrovics, Z. (2016). Working towards an international consensus on criteria for assessing internet gaming disorder: A critical commentary on Petry et al. (2014). Addiction, 111, 167-175.
22. Ha, J. Y., & Shin, S. M. (2016). The effectiveness of youth internet addiction group counseling programs: A meta-analysis. Korean Journal of Psychology: General, 35, 191-216.
23. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1-55.
24. Kardefelt-Winther, D. (2015). A critical account of DSM-5 criteria for internet gaming disorder. Addiction Research & Theory, 23, 93-98.
25. Kim, C. H. (1995). Relationship of the daily hassles, stress appraisal and coping strategies with emotional experiences. Korean Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 7, 44-69.
26. King, D. L., Haagsma, M. C., Delfabbro, P. H., Gradisar, M., & Griffiths, M. D. (2013). Toward a consensus definition of pathological video-gaming: A systematic review of psychometric assessment tools. Clinical psychology Review, 33, 331-342.
27. Kiraly, O., Sleczka, P., Pontes, H. M., Urban, R., Griffiths, M. D., & Demetrovics, Z. (2017). Validation of the Ten-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGDT-10) and evaluation of the nine DSM-5 Internet Gaming Disorder criteria. Addictive Behaviors, 64, 253-260.
28. Ko, C. H. (2014). Internet Gaming Disorder. Current Addiction Reports, 1, 177-185.
29. Ko, C. H., & Yen, J. Y. (2014). The criteria to diagnose internet gaming disorder from causal online gamer. Addiction, 109, 1411-1412.
30. Ko, C. H., Yen, J. Y., Chen, S. H., Wang, P. W., Chen, C. C., & Yen, C. F. (2014). Evaluation of the diagnostic criteria of internet gaming disorder in the DSM-5 among young adults in Taiwan. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 53, 103-110.
31. Koo, H. J., Cho, S. H., & Kwon, J. H. (2015). A study for examining diagnostic ability of the K-Scale as a diagnostic tool for DSM-5 Internet Gaming Disorder. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 34, 335-352.
32. Koo, H. J., Han, D. H., Park, S. Y., & Kwon, J. H. (in press). The structured clinical interview for DSM-5 internet gaming disorder (SCI-IGD): Development and validation for diagnosing IGD in adolescents. Psychiatric Investigation. Retrieved from http://www.psychiatryinvestigation.org/html/inpress.asp.
33. Koo, H. J., & Kwon, J. H. (2014). Risk and protective factors of internet addiction: A meta-analysis of empirical studies in Korea. Yonsei Medical Journal, 55, 1691-1711.
34. Kuss, D. J., Griffiths, M. D., Karila, L., & Billieux, J. (2014). Internet addiction: A systematic review of epidemiological research for the last decade. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 20, 1-27.
35. Kwon, H. K., & Kwon, J. H. (2002). The effect of the cognitive behavioral group therapy for high risk students of internet addiction. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 21, 503-514.
36. Lee, J. S. (1988). The consideration on the coping behavior according to stressors among high school students. (Unpublished master's thesis). Yeungnam University, Daegoo, Korea.
37. Lehenbauer-Baum, M., & Fohringer, M. (2015). Towards classification criteria for internet gaming disorder: Debunking differences between addiction and high engagement in a German sample of World of Warcraft players. Computers in Human Behavior, 45, 345-351.
38. Lemmens, J. S., Valkenburg, P. M., & Gentile, D. A. (2015). The internet gaming disorder scale. Psychological Assessment, 27, 567-582.
39. Park, K, P., Woo, S. W., & Chang, M. S. (2012). Validation study of brief symptoms inventory-18 (BSI-18) in college students. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 31, 507-521.
40. Petry, N. M., Rehbein, F., Gentile, D. A., Lemmens, J. S., Rumpf, H. J., Mosle, T., ... & Auriacombe, M. (2014). An international consensus for assessing internet gaming disorder using the new DSM‐5 approach. Addiction, 109, 1399-1406.
41. Pies, R. (2009). Should DSM-V designate “internet addiction” a mental disorder? Psychiatry, 6, 31-37.
42. Pontes, H. M., & Griffiths, M. D. (2015). Measuring DSM-5 Internet Gaming Disorder: Development and validation of a short psychometric scale. Computers in Human Behavior, 45, 137-143.
43. Rehbein, F., Kliem, S., Baier, D., Mosle, T., & Petry, N. M. (2015). Prevalence of internet gaming disorder in German adolescents: Diagnostic contribution of the nine DSM-5 criteria in a statewide representative sample. Addiction, 110, 842-851.
44. Shaw, M., & Black, D. W. (2008). Internet addiction: Definition, assessment, epidemiology and clinical management. CNS Drugs, 22, 353-365.
45. Song, M. J., Kim, S. H., Koo, H. J., & Kwon, J. H. (2001). The effect of internet addiction on daily life: A case study. Korea University Counseling Center: Psychological Testing & Counseling Psychology, 5, 323-333.
46. Tao, R., Huang, X., Wang, J., Zhang, H., Zhang, Y., & Li, M. (2010). Proposed diagnostic criteria for internet addiction. Addiction, 105, 556-564.
47. van Rooij, A. J., & Prause, N. (2014). A critical review of “internet addiction” criteria with suggestions for the future. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 3, 203-213.
48. van Rooij, A. J., Schoenmakers, T. M., & van de Mheen, D. (2017). Clinical validation of the C-VAT 2.0 assessment tool for gaming disorder: A sensitivity analysis of the proposed DSM-5 criteria and the clinical characteristics of young patients with ‘video game addiction’. Addictive Behaviors, 64, 269-274.
49. Wallace, P. (1999). The Psychology of the Internet. New York: Cambridge University Press.
50. Weinstein, A., & Lejoyeux, M. (2015). New developments on the neurobiological and pharmaco-genetic mechanisms underlying internet and videogame addiction. The American Journal on Addiction, 24, 117-125.
51. Young, K. S. (1996). Psychology of computer use: XL. Addictive use of the Internet: A case that breaks the stereotype. Psychological reports, 79, 899-902.
52. Young, K. S. (1998). Internet addiction: The emergence of a new clinical disorder. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 1, 237-244.