Korean Clinical Psychology Association

Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology - Vol. 37 , No. 4

[ Original Article ]
Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology - Vol. 37 , No. 4 , pp.479-490
ISSN: 2733-4538 (Online)
publication date 30 Nov 2018
Received 06 Apr 2018 Revised 10 Aug 2018 Accepted 15 Aug 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.15842/kjcp.2018.37.4.002

성장글쓰기가 데이트 폭력 피해자의 기본 세계관과 친밀한 관계에 대한 두려움에 미치는 영향
홍혜인 ; 현명호
중앙대학교 심리학과

The Effect of a Growth-Writing Program on the World Assumptions and Fear of Intimacy of Survivors of Dating Violence
Hye In Hong ; Myoung Ho Hyun
Department of Psychology, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to : Myoung Ho Hyun, Department of Psychology, Chung-Ang University, 84 Heukseok-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul, Korea; E-mail: hyunmh@cau.ac.kr

© 2018 Korean Clinical Psychology Association


본 연구는 데이트 폭력 피해자를 대상으로 성장글쓰기 프로그램을 실시하여 기본 세계관과 친밀한 관계에 대한 두려움에 미치는 영향을 검증하였다. 연구 대상은 데이트 폭력 경험은 있으나 현재 이성교제 중이 아닌 만 19세에서 만 38세 사이 여성이다. 글쓰기는 4일간 연속 실시되었고 참여자는 사전, 사후, 추수(2주)에 걸쳐 기본 세계관(WAS)과 친밀한 관계에 대한 두려움(FIS)을 측정하였다. 최종 프로그램 참여자는 성장글쓰기 10명, 표현글쓰기 11명, 통제 7명이었다. 분석을 위해 일원분산분석, 반복측정 공분산분석, 대응표본 t-검증을 실시하였다. 연구 결과, 성장글쓰기가 데이트 폭력 피해자의 긍정적 세계관을 증가시킬 것이라는 첫 번째 가설은 부분 지지되었다. 성장글쓰기 직후 기본 세계관 점수의 증가는 유의하지 않았으나, 글쓰기 종료 14일 이후에는 사전 점수에 비해 유의한 증가를 보였다. 반면, 성장글쓰기가 데이트 폭력 피해자의 친밀한 관계에 대한 두려움을 감소시킬 것이라는 두 번째 가설은 기각되었다. 본 연구를 통해 성장글쓰기가 4일간의 처치 직후 데이트 폭력 피해자의 기본 세계관을 개선하지는 못하나 장기적인 관점에서 긍정적 영향을 줄 수 있음을 확인하였다. 다만, 단순한 자기노출만으로는 대인관계 맥락에서의 친밀한 관계에 대한 두려움을 감소시키기에 한계가 있음을 시사한다. 마지막으로 본 연구의 의의와 한계점, 추후 연구 제안을 기술하였다.


This research examines the effect of a growth-writing program on the world assumptions and fear of intimacy of survivors of dating violence. Research subjects included women between 19 and 38 years who had experienced dating violence and were not currently dating. The writing practice was completed during four days, and participants’ world assumptions (WAS) and fear of intimacy (FIS) were measured before and after the program and in the follow-up (2 weeks) period. The number of participants in the growth-writing, expressive-writing, and control groups was 10, 11, and 7 respectively. Analyses were performed using, one-way ANOVA, repeated measurement ANCOVA, and paired sample t-test. Results indicated that, the first hypothesis, which proposed that a growth-writing program would enhance positive world assumptions in survivors of dating violence, was mostly supported. Although scores on world assumptions did not increase significantly immediately after finishing the growth-writing program, they showed significant improvements during the follow-up phase. On the other hand, the second hypothesis, which proposed that a growth-writing program would reduce the fear of intimacy in survivors of dating violence, was proven invalid. This study’s results indicated that, although four days of treatment could not improve the world assumptions of survivors of dating violence, it was confirmed that it could have a positive effect in the long term. However, results also implied that there is a limit for self-disclosure in reducing fear of intimacy in human relationships. Finally, the significance and limitations of the study are described, and suggestions for future research are provided.

Keywords: growth-writing program, dating violence survivor, world assumptions, fear of intimacy
키워드: 성장글쓰기 프로그램, 데이트 폭력 피해자, 기본 세계관, 친밀한 관계에 대한 두려움


This work was based on the master’s thesis of Hye In Hong, was presented at the 2015 convention of the Korean Clinical Psychological Association.

1. Affleck, G., & Tennen, H. (1996). Construing benefits from adversity: Adaptational significance and dispositional underpinnings. Journal of Personality, 64, 899-922.
2. Allen, J. G. (2010). Coping with trauma: hope through understanding. (J. H, Kim, J. B., Cho, Y. R., Choi, H. K., Choi, Y. K., & Kwon, H. I., Trans.) Seoul, Korea: Hakjisa. (Original work published in 2008).
3. Baumeister, R. F., Exline, J. J., & Sommer, K. L. (1999). The victim role, grudge theory, and two dimensions of forgiveness. In E. L. Worthington, (Ed.), Dimensions of forgiveness: Psychological research and theological perspectives (pp. 79-104). Philadelphia, PA: Templeton Foundation Press.
4. Bohn, D. K., & Holz, K. A. (1996). Sequelae of abuse: Health effects of childhood sexual abuse, domestic battering, and rape. Journal of Nurse-Midwifery, 41, 442-456.
5. Brewin, C. R., & Lennard, H. (1999). Effects of mode of writing on emotional narratives. Journal of Traumatic Stress: Official Publication of The International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, 12, 355-361.
6. Brewin, C. R., & Holmes, E. A. (2003). Psychological theories of postt-raumatic stress disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 339-376.
7. Briere, J., & Runtz, M. (1988). Symptomatology associated with childhood sexual victimization in a nonclinical adult sample. Child Abuse & Neglect, 12, 51-59.
8. Browne, A., & Finkelhor, D. (1986). Impact of child sexual abuse: A review of the research. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 66-77.
9. Burgess, A. W., & Holmstrom, L. L. (1974). Rape trauma syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry, 131, 981-986.
10. Burt, M. R., & Katz, B. L. (1987). Dimensions of recovery from rape focus on growth outcomes. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2, 57-81.
11. Cardi, M., Milich, R., Harris, M. J., & Kearns, E. (2007). Self-esteem moderates the response to forgiveness instructions among women with a history of victimization. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 804-819.
12. Cha, S. Y., Hyun, M. H., Ra, Y. S., & Yoon, S. Y. (2009). The effects of intrapersonal-interpersonal forgiveness on negative affect, perceived control, and intention to terminate the relationship in victims of dating violence. Asian Women, 28, 61-83.
13. Choi, G. Y. (2015). The effects of the growth-writing about interpersonal relationship on forgiveness and subjective well-being. Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Korea, 15, 57-75.
14. Cook, J. M., Riggs, D. S., Thompson, R., Coyne, J. C., & Sheikh, J. I. (2004). Posttraumatic stress disorder and current relationship functioning among World War II ex-prisoners of war. Journal of Family Psychology, 18, 36-45.
15. Davey, G. C. L. (1997). A conditioning model of phobias. In G. C. L. Davey (Ed.), Phobias: A handbook of theory, research and treatment (pp. 301-322). Chichester, England: Wiley.
16. Davis, J. L., Petretic-Jackson, P. A., & Ting, L. (2001). Intimacy dysfunction and trauma symptomatology: Long-term correlates of different types of child abuse. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 14, 63-79.
17. Dekel, R., Solomon, Z., Elklit, A., & Ginzburg, K. (2004). World assumptions and combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. The Journal of Social Psychology, 144, 407-420.
18. Descutner, C. J., & Thelen, M. H. (1991). Development and validation of a Fear-of-Intimacy scale. Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 3, 218-225.
19. Ehlers, A., & Clark, D. M. (2000). A cognitive model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 319-345.
20. Fergusson, D., Swain-Campbell, N. R., & Horwood, L. J. (2002). Does sexual violence contribute to elevated rates of anxiety and depression in females? Psychological Medicine, 32, 991-996.
21. Foa, E. B., & Kozak, M. J. (1986). Emotional processing of fear: Exposure to corrective information. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 20-35.
22. Furman, W., & Wehner, E. A. (1994). Romantic views: Toward a theory of adolescent romantic relationships. In R. Montemayor, G. R. Adams, & T. P. Gullotta (Eds.). Personal relationships during adolescence. Advances in adolescent development: An annual book series (pp. 168-195). Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc.
23. Gelles, R. J., & Straus, M. A. (1979). Determinants of violence in the family: Toward a theoretical integration. In W. R. Burr, R. Hill, F. I. Nye, & I. L., Reiss (Eds.), Contemporary theories about the family (Vol. 1, pp. 549-581). New York, NY: Free Press.
24. Greenberg, M. A., & Stone, A. A. (1992). Emotional disclosure about traumas and its relation to health: Effects of previous disclosure and trauma severity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 75-84.
25. Greenberg, M. A., Wortman, C. B., & Stone, A. A. (1996). Emotional expression and physical heath: Revising traumatic memories or fostering self-regulation? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 588-602.
26. Guastella, A. J., & Dadds, M. R. (2008). Cognitive-behavioural emotion writing tasks: A controlled trial of multiple processes. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 39, 558-566.
27. Guastella, A. J., & Dadds, M. R. (2009). Sequential growth in cognitive-behavioral emotion-processing: A laboratory study. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 33, 368-374.
28. Ha, N., Bae, S. M., & Hyun, M. H. (2011). The mediating effects of forgiveness on the relationship between shame and depression in survivors of sexual abuse. The Korean Journal of Health Psychology, 16, 725-737.
29. Han, S. Y. (2005). College student’s attachment to parents and fear of intimacy regarding intimate relationship (Master’s thesis) Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea.
30. Herman, J. L. (1992). Complex PTSD: A syndrome in survivors of prolonged and repeated trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 5, 377-391.
31. Hook, M. K., Gerstein, L. H., Detterich, L., & Gridley, B. (2003). How close are we? Measuring intimacy and examining gender differences. Journal of Counseling and Development, 81, 462-472.
32. Horowitz, M. J. (1986). Stress-response syndromes: A review of posttraumatic and adjustment disorders. Psychiatric Services, 37, 241-249.
33. Hotaling, G. T., & Sugarman, D. B. (1986). An analysis of risk markers in husband to wife violence: The current state of knowledge. Violence and Victims, 1, 101-124.
34. Ifeagwzi, C. M. (2008). Self-disclosure. International Journal of Communication, 8, 231-238.
35. Janoff-Bulman, R. (1989). Assumptive worlds and the stress of traumatic events: Applications of the schema construct. Social Cognition, 7, 113-136.
36. Janoff-Bulman, R. (2004). Posttraumatic growth: Three explanatory models. Psychological Inquiry, 15, 30-34.
37. Janoff-Bulman, R. (2006). Schema-change perspectives on posttraumatic growth. In L. G. Calhoun, & R. G. Tedeschi (Eds). Handbook of posttraumatic growth: Research and practice (pp. 81-99). New York, NY : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
38. Janoff-Bulman, R., & Frantz, C. M. (1997). The impact of trauma on meaning: From meaningless world to meaningful life. In M. J. Power, & C. R. Brewin (Eds.), The transformation of meaning in psychological therapies: Integrating theory and practice (pp. 91-106). New York, NY: Wiley.
39. Jee, E. H., & Cho, Y. R. (2015). The influences of trauma-related negative cognitions and difficulties in emotion regulation on posttraumatic stress symptoms in a sample of traumatized university students. Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Korea, 15, 195-212.
40. Jeong, E. S., Heo, J. S., & Hyun, M. H. (2017). The effect of the growth-writing program on anxiety, powerlessness, hope, and guilt in mother of children with cancer. The Korean Journal of Stress Research, 25, 23-29.
41. Kim, I. H., & Song, H. J. (2014). The mediating effect of the traumatized self-system on the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and fear of intimacy. Journal of Human Understanding and Counseling, 35, 65-78.
42. Kim, J. N., & Kim, K. S. (1999). College students’ dating violence and coping behavior. Family and Environment Research, 37, 73-90.
43. Koopman, C., Ismailji, T., Holmes, D., Classen, C. C., Palesh, O., & Wales, T. (2005). The effects of expressive writing on pain, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in survivors of intimate partner violence. Journal of Health Psychology, 10, 211-221.
44. Koss, M. P., & Cook, S. L. (1998). Facing the facts: Date and acquaintance rape are significant problems for women. In R. K. Bergen (Ed.), Issues in intimate violence (pp. 147-156). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
45. Lee, C. H., Sim, J. M., & Yoon, A. S. (2005). The review about the development of Korean linguistic inquiry and word count. Journal of Cognitive Science, 16, 93-121.
46. Lee, J. E., Hyun, M. H., & Yoo, J. M. (2007). The correction of the investment model regarding the maintenance of violent dating relationships focus on altruistic delusion. The Korean Journal of Health Psychology, 12, 983-995.
47. Lee, J. W., Oh, J. H., Jung, J. S., & Lee, C. H. (2007). Counselor-client language analysis using the K-LIWC program. Journal of the Korean Data Analysis Society, 9, 2545-2567.
48. Lee, S. M., Heo, J. S., & Hyun, M. H. (2015). The effects of other and self forgiveness writing therapy on shame, self concept clarity, and depression in interpersonal conflicts. Korean Journal of Youth Studies, 24(1), 239-261.
49. Lee, Y. S. (2014). Meta-Analysis on the effects of writing therapy (Master’s thesis). Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.
50. Lepore, S. J., Greenberg, M. A., Bruno, M., & Smyth, J. M. (2002). Expressive writing and health: Self-regulation of emotion-related experience, physiology, and behavior. In S. J. Lepore, & J. M. Smyth (Eds.), The writing cure: How expressive writing promotes health and emotional well-being (pp. 99-117). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
51. Lewis, S. F., & Fremouw, W. (2001). Dating violence: A critical review of the literature. Clinical Psychology Review, 21, 105-127.
52. Lilly, M. M., Howell, K. H., & Graham-Bermann, S. (2015). World assumptions, religiosity, and PTSD in survivors of intimate partner violence. Violence Against Women, 21, 87-104.
53. Molidor, C., & Tolman, R. M. (1998). Gender and contextual factors in adolescent dating violence. Violence Against Women, 4, 180-194.
54. Park, E. Y., Shin, E. S., & Kim, H. J. (2012). The relationships between children’s social play behavior and social competence: Focused on solitary play. Korean Journal of Child Education and Care, 12, 249-268.
55. Park, H. J., & Hong, C. H. (2010). Effects of forgiveness therapy through writing on the psychological adjustment of sufferers of interpersonal trauma. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 29, 83-107.
56. Park, J. E., & Chung, N. W. (2016). The moderating effect of forgiveness in the relationship between posttraumatic negative cognitions and posttraumatic growth. Journal of Human Understanding Counseling, 37, 167-185.
57. Pennebaker, J. W. (1993). Putting stress into words: Health, linguistic, and therapeutic implications. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 31, 539-548.
58. Pennebaker, J. W., & Beall, S. K. (1986). Confronting a traumatic event: Toward an understanding of inhibition and disease. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 95, 274-281.
59. Pennebaker, J. W., & King, L. A. (1999). Linguistic styles: Language use as an individual difference. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1296-1312.
60. Pennebaker, J. W., Mayne, T. J., & Francis, M. E. (1997). Linguistic predictors of adaptive bereavement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 863-871.
61. Pennebaker, J. W. (2000). The effects of traumatic disclosure on physical and mental health: The values of writing and talking about upsetting events. In J. M. Violanti, D. Paton, & C. Dunning (Eds.), Posttraumatic stress intervention: Challenges, issues, and perspectives (pp. 97-114). Springfield, IL, US: Charles C Thomas Publisher.
62. Pennebaker, J. W. (2004). Writing to heal: A guided journal for recovering from trauma and emotional upheaval. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.
63. Reis, H. T., & Shaver, P. (1988). Intimacy as an interpersonal process. Handbook of Personal Relationships, 24, 367-389.
64. Repic, T. (2007). Fear of intimacy among married and divorced persons in association with physical abuse in childhood. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 46, 49-62.
65. Selye, H. (1976). Dissecting a biologic mechanism. In H. Selye (Ed.), The stress of life (revised) (pp. 97-128). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
66. Seo, H. J., & Chae, J. H. (2006). Recent cognitive behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Korea, 6, 117-129.
67. Shulman, S., Levy-Shiff, R., Kedem, P., & Alon, E. (1997). Intimate relationships among adolescent romantic partners and same-sex friends: Individual and systemic perspectives. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 78, 37-51.
68. Smyth, J. M. (1998). Written emotional expression: Effect sizes, outcome types, and moderating variables. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 174-184.
69. Stiles, W. B., & Shapiro, D. A. (1995). Verbal exchange structure of brief psychodynamic-interpersonal and cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 15-27.
70. Straus, M. A., Hamby, S. L., Boney-McCoy, S., & Sugarman, D. B. (1996). The revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2) development and preliminary psychometric data. Journal of Family Issues, 17(3), 283-316.
71. Suedfeld, P., & Pennebaker, J. W. (1997). Health outcomes and cognitive aspects of recalled negative life events. Psychosomatic Medicine, 59, 172-177.
72. Sullivan, H. S. (2013). The interpersonal theory of psychiatry. In H. S. Sullivan (Ed.), The interpersonal theory of psychiatry (pp. 158-171). New York, NY: Routledge.
73. Taylor, S. E., Lichtman, R. R., & Wood, J. V. (1984). Attributions, beliefs about control, and adjustment to breast cancer. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 489-502.
74. Tedeschi, R. G., Park, C. L., & Calhoun, L. G. (1998). Posttraumatic growth: Conceptual issues. In R. G. Tedeschi, C. L. Park, & L. G. Calhoun (Eds.)., Posttraumatic growth: Positive changes in the aftermath of crisis (pp. 1-22). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
75. Thelen, M. H., Sherman, M. D., & Borst, T. S. (1998). Fear of intimacy and attachment among rape survivors. Behavior Modification, 22, 108-116.
76. Walker, E. A., Torkelson, N., Katon, W. J., & Koss, M. P. (1993). The prevalence rate of sexual trauma in a primary care clinic. The Journal of the American Board of Family Practice / American Board of Family Practice, 6, 465-471.