Korean Clinical Psychology Association

Current Issue

Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology - Vol. 40 , No. 4

[ Original Article ]
Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology - Vol. 40, No. 4, pp. 331-342
Abbreviation: KJCP
ISSN: 1229-0335 (Print) 2733-4538 (Online)
Print publication date 30 Nov 2021
Received 09 Jul 2021 Revised 12 Oct 2021 Accepted 14 Oct 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.15842/kjcp.2021.40.4.001

Longitudinal Effects of Perceived Parental Overprotection on Korean Male Adolescents’ Academic Achievement
Soohyun Shin1 ; Yung Jae Suh1 ; JooYoung Lee2 ; Kyong-Mee Chung1,
1Department of Psychology, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea
2Department of Child Development and Education, Dongduk Women’s University, Seoul, Korea

Correspondence to : Kyong-Mee Chung, Department of Psychology, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, Korea; E-mail: kmchung@yonsei.ac.kr


© 2021 Korean Clinical Psychology Association
Funding Information ▼

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the trajectories of academic achievement of male Korean high school students over a period of 3 years and the effects of perceived parental overprotection. 539 Participants completed the Korean Version of the Parental Bonding Instrument at the beginning of the study, and their language and mathematics scores from the National Achievement Test were recorded every semester for 3 years (n=494 for language and n=493 for mathematics). Latent growth curve models, latent class growth analysis, and multinomial logistic regression analysis were conducted to evaluate the longitudinal data. The results showed an overall decline in academic scores in both subjects; in addition, three latent classes for language scores and four latent classes for mathematics scores were identified. For language, higher maternal overprotection was negatively associated only with Time 1 scores, collected at the beginning of the first year of high school, while higher paternal overprotection was negatively associated with Time 1 scores, as well as changes over time. Higher maternal or paternal overprotection increased the possibility of having lower language scores at Time 1. For mathematics, only higher paternal overprotection was negatively associated with Time 1 scores and changed over time, in addition to increased chances of having lower mathematics scores at Time 1. The results indicate that parental overprotection, especially that of the father, negatively affected male high school students’ academic achievement, suggesting a new perspective of interpreting fathers’ role in sons’ academic achievement in Korean culture, in which mothers’ roles have been emphasized.


Keywords: perceived parental overprotection, academic achievement, male adolescents, growth curve modeling, latent class identification

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by a grant from the Bio & Medical Technology Development Program, funded by the National Research Foundation of Korea, Republic of Korea (no. 07-2021-3009).

Author contributions statement

Soohyun Shin, a graduate student at Yonsei University, collected and analyzed the data and prepared the manuscript. Yungjae Suh, a graduate student at Yonsei University, assisted in analyzing the data and writing the discussion part of the manuscript. JooYoung Lee, a professor at Donduk Women's University, provided significant consultation for data analysis. Kyong-mee Chung, professor at Yonsei University, served as the principal investigator of the research grant and supervised the research process. All authors provided critical feedback, participated in the revision of the manuscript, and approved the final submission.


References
1. Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 238-246.
2. Brewer, D. J., Eide, E. R., & Ehrenberg, R. G. (1999). Does it pay to attend an elite private college? Cross-cohort evidence on the effects of college type on earnings. The Journal of Human Resources, 34, 104-123.
3. Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136-162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
4. Cho, B. E., & Shin, H. Y. (1996). State of family research and theory in Korea. Marriage and Family Review, 22, 101-135.
5. Cho, S. (2005). Study on father–son experiences of male college students. Korea Youth Research, 12, 115-141.
6. Choi, M., & Cho, S. (2005). Adolescent’s image study about their father. The Korea Journal of Youth Counseling, 13, 55-69.
7. Choi, S. (2004). Chemyeon - Social face in Korean culture. Korea Journal, 44, 30-51.
8. Chung, K. M., Kang, J. H., Kim, E. S., & Shin, M. J. (2013). Identification of developmental trajectories of social withdrawal in male adolescents: A two-year longitudinal study using growth modeling. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 32, 177-197.
9. Clarke, K., Cooper, P., & Creswell, C. (2013). The parental overprotection scale: Associations with child and parental anxiety. Journal of Affective Disorders, 151, 618-624.
10. Department of Education. (2015). Statistical yearbook of education. Seoul: Department of Education.
11. Ding, G. (2014). Parental behaviors and academic achievement. American International Journal of Social Science, 3, 26-43.
12. Doh, H. S., & Falbo, T. (1999). Social competence, maternal attentiveness, and overprotectiveness: Only children in Korea. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 23, 149-162.
13. Eccles, J. S. (2007). Families, schools, and developing achievement-related motivations and engagement. In J. E. Grusec & P. D. Hastings (Eds.), Handbook of socialization: Theory and research (p. 665-691). New York: Guilford Press.
14. Fan, X. (2001). Parental involvement and students’ academic achievement: A growth modeling analysis. The Journal of Experimental Education, 70, 27-61.
15. Feldman, R., Guttfreund, D., & Yerushalmi, H. (1998). Parental care and intrusiveness as predictors of the abilities-achievement gap in adolescence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 39, 721-730.
16. Finch, W. H., & Marchant, G. J. (2013). Application of multilevel latent class analysis to identify achievement and socio-economic typologies in the 20 wealthiest countries. Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology, 3, 201-221.
17. Geary, D. C., Bailey, D. H., Littlefield, A., Wood, P., Hoard, M. K., & Nugent, L. (2009). First-grade predictors of mathematical learning disability: A latent class trajectory analysis. Cognitive Development, 24, 411-429.
18. Georgiou, S. N. (2008). Bullying and victimization at school: The role of mothers. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 78, 109-125.
19. Guak, U. H., Kim, E., & Chung, K. M. (2016). Developmental trajectories of depression/anxiety and social support in late adolescent males. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 35, 243-264.
20. Gutman, L. M., Sameroff, A. J., & Cole, R. (2003). Academic growth curve trajectories from 1st grade to 12th grade: Effects of multiple social risk factors and preschool child factors. Developmental Psychology, 39, 777-790.
21. Häfner, I., Flunger, B., Dicke, A. L., Gaspard, H., Brisson, B. M., Nagengast, B., & Trautwein, U. (2018). The role of family characteristics for students’ academic outcomes: A person‐centered approach. Child Development, 89, 1405-1422.
22. Harris, K. M., Furstenberg, F. F., & Marmer, J. K. (1998). Paternal involvement with adolescents in intact families: The influence of fathers over the life course. Demography, 35, 201-216.
23. Heaven, P. C. L., Mak, A., Barry, J., & Ciarrochi, J. (2002). Personality and family influences on adolescent attitudes to school and self-rated academic performance. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 453-462.
24. Herz, L., & Gullone, E. (1999). The relationship between self-esteem and parenting style: A cross-cultural comparison of Australian and Vietnamese Australian Adolescents. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 30, 742-761.
25. Holmbeck, G. N., Johnson, S. Z., Wills, K. E., McKernon, W., Rose, B., Erklin, S., Kemrer, T. (2002). Observed and perceived parental overprotection in relation to psychosocial adjustment in preadolescents with a physical disability: The mediational role of behavioral autonomy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 96-110.
26. Hong, S. (2000). The criteria for selecting appropriate fit indices in structural equation modeling and their rationales. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 19, 161-177.
27. Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6, 1-55.
28. Hwang, Y. (2001). Why do South Korean students study hard? Reflections on Paik’s study. International Journal of Educational Research, 35, 609-618.
29. Jacobs, J. E., & Eccles, J. S. (1992). The impact of mothers’ gender-role stereotypic beliefs on mothers’ and children’s ability perceptions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 932-944.
30. Johnson, E. J., & Descartes, C. H. (2017). Parental influence on academic achievement among the primary school students in Trinidad. Early Child Development and Care, 187, 1221-1227.
31. Kaplan, D. (2002). Methodological advances in the analysis of individual growth with relevance to education policy. Peabody Journal of Education, 77, 189-215.
32. Kim, E. S. (1990). Study on the trend of change in test anxiety by ages of Korean students (Doctoral dissertation). Ewha Womens University, Seoul, Korea.
33. Kim, H. J. (2006). Effects of a Dance/Movement Therapy on the Test Anxiety of Girls in High School: With a focus on the intervention technique by Blanche Evan (Doctoral dissertation). Seoul Womens University, Seoul, Korea.
34. Kim, H. J. (2009). How psychological environment which general high school students perceive in school effect on the test anxiety (Doctoral dissertation). Seogang University, Seoul, Korea.
35. Kim, H., Cho, S., & Kim, M. (2010). Effects of significance of study, pressure for study and success on life satisfaction among adolescents, and the moderating effect of parent-adolescent communication. Family and Environment Research, 48, 49-60.
36. Kim, J., Kim, E. J., & Hong, S. (2006). Effects of self-determination on the academic achievement in Korean middle school students. The Korean Journal of Educational Psychology, 20, 243-264.
37. Kim, S. H., & Chung, O. B. (2011). Maternal overprotection, child emotion regulation and peer relationships: The mediating role of emotion regulation in children. The Korean Journal of the Human Development, 18, 69-92.
38. Kwon, Y. I. (2004). Early childhood education in Korea: Discrepancy between national kindergarten curriculum and practices. Educational Review, 56, 297-312.
39. Lee, C. S., Kim, Y. M., & Park, M. J. (2006). Generational differences in the permissive levels of dating among youth. Korean Journal of Community Living Science, 17, 127-135.
40. Lee, G. L. (1997). The characteristics of early childhood education in Korea. International Journal of Early Childhood, 29, 44-50.
41. Lee, S. K. (2011). Local perspectives of Korean shadow education. Reconsidering Development, 2, 31-52.
42. Lee, S., & Choi, J. M. (2006). Maternal overprotective behavior and their children’s aggression, withdrawal and perceived competence. Korean Journal of Community Living Science, 17, 69-79.
43. Lee, Z. N. (1999). Korean culture and sense of shame. Transcultural Psychiatry, 36, 181-194.
44. McLachlan, G., & Peel, D. (2000). Finite mixture models. New York, NY: Wiley.
45. McNeal, R. B. (2012). Checking in or checking out? Investigating the parent involvement reactive hypothesis. The Journal of Educational Research, 105, 79-89.
46. Mofrad, S., Abdollah, R., & Samah, B. A. (2009). Perceived Parental overprotection and separation anxiety: Does specific parental rearing serve as specific risk factor. Asian Social Science, 5, 109-116.
47. Muthén, B. (2004). Latent variable analysis: Growth mixture modeling and related techniques for longitudinal data. In D. Kaplan (Ed.), The Sage handbook of quantitative methodology for the social sciences (pp. 345-368). New York, NY: Sage.
48. Muthén, B., & Muthén, L. K. (2000). Integrating person-centered and variable-centered analyses: Growth mixture modeling with latent trajectory classes. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 24, 882-891.
49. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998-2009). Mplus User’s guide. Los Angeles. 5th Edition. CA: Muthén & Muthén.
50. Nagin, D. S. (2005). Group-based modeling of development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
51. Otani, K., Suzuki, A., Kamata, M., Matsumoto, Y., Shibuya, N., Sadahiro, R., Enokido, M. (2012). Parental overprotection increases sociotropy with gender specificity in parents and recipients. Journal of Affective Disorders, 136, 824-827.
52. Otani, K., Suzuki, A., Matsumoto, Y., Shibuya, N., Sadahiro, R., & Enokido, M. (2013). Parental overprotection engenders dysfunctional attitudes about achievement and dependency in a gender-specific manner. BMC Psychiatry, 13, 345.
53. Park, H. (2012). An investigation of the effects of Korean adolescents’ private education participation pattern, gender, and independent math study hours on their understanding of school math over a span of six years. The Korean Journal of Educational Psychology, 26, 695-716.
54. Parker, G. (1990). The parental bonding instrument. A decade of research. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 25, 281-282.
55. Parker, G., Tupling, H., & Brown, L. B. (1979). A parental bonding instrument. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 52, 1-10.
56. Phuong, T. B., Huong, N. T., Tien, T. Q., Chi, H. K., & Dunne, M. P. (2013). Factors associated with health risk behavior among school children in urban Vietnam. Global Health Action, 6, 1-9.
57. Shin, H., Lee, J., Kim, B., & Lee, S. M. (2012). Students’ perceptions of parental bonding styles and their academic burnout. Asia Pacific Education Review, 13, 509-517.
58. Simpkins, S. D., Fredricks, J. A., & Eccles, J. S. (2012). Charting the Eccles’ expectancy-value model from mothers’ beliefs in childhood to youths’ activities in adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 48, 1019-1032.
59. Song, J. (1992). The development of the Parental Bonding Instrument-Korean version: Evaluation of the test reliability and validity. Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatry Association, 31, 979-992.
60. Spada, M. M., Caselli, G., Manfredi, C., Rebecchi, D., Rovetto, F., Ruggiero, G. M., . . . Sassaroli, S. (2012). Parental overprotection and metacognitions as predictors of worry and anxiety. Behavioural and cognitive psychotherapy, 40, 287-296.
61. Suárez-Orozco, C., Gaytán, F. X., Bang, H. J., Pakes, J., O’Connor, E., & Rhodes, J. (2010). Academic trajectories of newcomer immigrant youth. Developmental Psychology, 46, 602-618.
62. Suh, B. E., Oh, K. S., & Kim, H. K. (2011). The analytic study and trends in mathematics achievement scores of the NAEA and mathematics item scores of the CSAT in 5 metropolitan cities. Journal of the Korean Data & Information Science Society, 22, 297-311.
63. Sung, J. H., Lee, Y. S., & Lee, K. H. (1999). Individual and socioenvironmental factors affecting test anxiety in adolescents. Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association, 38, 571-582.
64. Tucker, L. R., & Lewis, C. (1973). A reliability coefficient for maximum likelihood factor analysis. Psychometrika, 38, 1-10.
65. Wood, J. J., McLeod, B. D., Sigman, M., Hwang, W. C., & Chu, B. C. (2003). Parenting and childhood anxiety: Theory, empirical findings, and future directions. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 44, 134-151.
66. Yang, M. H., & Lee, K. A. (2012). A longitudinal analysis of relationships between self-regulated learning and academic achievement. Journal of Educational Studies, 43, 175-195.
67. Yee, D. K., & Flanagan, C. (1985). Family Environments and Self-Consciousness in Early Adolescence. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 5, 59-68.
68. Yoon, J. L., & Chung, K. M. (2014). The relationship between the level of perceived parental overprotectiveness and college students’ morality. Korean Journal of Culture and Social Issues, 20, 307-328.
69. You, M. Y., & Hong, H. Y. (2010). The relationship between perceived parental attitudes toward childrearing and academic achievement: The mediating effects of emotional intelligence and academic self-efficacy. The Korean Journal of Educational Psychology, 24, 915-937.
70. Young, R., Lennie, S., & Minnis, H. (2011). Children’s perceptions of parental emotional neglect and control and psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 52, 889-897.
71. Zahedani, Z., Rezaee, R., Yazdani, Z., Bagheri, S., & Nabeiei, P. (2016). The influence of parenting style on academic achievement and career path. Journal of Advances in Medical Education and Professionalism, 4, 130-134.