Korean Clinical Psychology Association

Current Issue

Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology - Vol. 40 , No. 1

[ Original Article ]
Korean Journal of Clinical PsychologyVol. 40, No. 1, pp.12-28
Abbreviation: KJCP
ISSN: 1229-0335 (Print) 2733-4538 (Online)
Print publication date 28 Feb 2021
Received 26 Jun 2020 Revised 06 Dec 2020 Accepted 07 Dec 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.15842/kjcp.2021.40.1.002

반추와 사회적 회피의 관계: 자기제시동기에 의해 조절된 정서적 소진의 매개효과
정민지 ; 김향숙
서강대학교 심리학과

The Relationship between Rumination and Social Avoidance: The Moderated Mediating Effect of Emotional Exhaustion and Self-Presentational Motivation
Minjee Jung ; Hyang Sook Kim
Department of Psychology, Sogang University, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to : Hyang Sook Kim, Sogang University, Department of Psychology, 35 Baekbeom-ro, Mapo-gu, Seoul, Korea; E-mail: hyangkim@sogang.ac.kr


© 2021 Korean Clinical Psychology Association

초록

본 연구에서는 스트레스 상황에서 사회적 회피를 보이는 현상에 주목하여, 반추와 정서적 소진과의 관계를 통합적으로 살펴보고자 하였다. 또한 자기제시동기가 사회적 회피에 이르는 기제에 어떤 역할을 하는지 함께 탐색하였다. 이를 위해 대학생 및 대학원생들에게 지각된 스트레스 척도를 실시하였으며, 점수가 16점 이상인 387명의 자료를 최종 분석에 사용하였다. 그 결과 첫째, 정서적 소진은 반추와 사회적 회피 간의 관계를 부분 매개하였다. 둘째, 정서적 소진과 사회적 회피 간의 관계를 자기제시동기가 조절하였다. 셋째, 반추와 사회적 회피의 관계에서 자기제시동기에 의해 조절된 정서적 소진의 매개효과가 유의한 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구를 통해 반추적 사고가 직접적으로 사회적 회피를 예측하는 동시에, 반추가 정서적 소진이라는 기제를 통해 사회적 회피를 유발할 수 있음을 확인하였다. 또한 스트레스 상황에서 반추로 인해 정서적으로 소진되었을 때, 타인에게 목적한 인상을 제시하고자 하는 동기가 강할수록 사회적 상호작용을 더 회피할 소지가 높다는 점이 시사되었다.

Abstract

The present study focuses on the phenomenon of social avoidance in a stressful situation and examines an integrated model involving rumination and emotional exhaustion. In addition, this study investigates the role of self-presentational motivation in these mechanisms. For this purpose, undergraduate and graduate students were recruited to complete a survey. Data were collected from 387 students using the Perceived Stress Scale and the participants who scored 16 or more were included in the final analysis. First, the results show that emotional exhaustion partially mediated the relationship between rumination and social avoidance. Second, self-presentational motivation had a moderating effect on the relationship between emotional exhaustion and social avoidance. Third, the moderated mediating effect of self-presentational motivation, which moderates the mediating effect of emotional exhaustion, was significant in the relationship between rumination and social avoidance. This study depicts that ruminative thoughts may predict social avoidance directly, and also may influence social avoidance through the mechanism of emotional exhaustion. In addition, this study found that when individuals are emotionally exhausted as a result of rumination and they have a strong motivation to present the desired impression to others, they will show greater avoidance regarding social interaction.


Keywords: perceived stress, rumination, emotional exhaustion, social avoidance, self-presentational motivation
키워드: 지각된 스트레스, 반추, 정서적 소진, 사회적 회피, 자기제시동기

Author contributions statement

Minjee Jung, who was a graduate student at Sogang University and now is a clinical psychology trainee at Korea University Anam Hospital, generated the research idea, collected and analyzed data, and wrote the manuscript. Hyang Sook Kim, an associate professor at Sogang University, was involved with the conception and design of the study, supervised the data collection and interpretation, and edited the manuscript. All authors critically revised the manuscript and approved it for the final submission.


References
1. Alpert, J. E., Uebelacker, L. A., McLean, N. E., Nierenberg, A. A., Pava, J. A., Worthington III, J. J., . . . Fava, M. (1997). Social phobia, avoidant personality disorder and atypical depression: Co-occurrence and clinical implications. Psychological Medicine, 27, 627-633.
2. Ashton, M. C., Lee, K., & Paunonen, S. V. (2002). What is the central feature of extraversion? Social attention versus reward sensitivity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 245-252.
3. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182.
4. Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497-529.
5. Baumeister, R. F., Vohs, K. D., & Tice, D. M. (2007). The strength model of self-control. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 351-355.
6. Bianchi, R., & Schonfeld, I. S. (2016). Burnout is associated with a depressive cognitive style. Personality and Individual Differences, 100, 1-5.
7. Blalock, J. A., & Joiner, T. E. (2000). Interaction of cognitive avoidance coping and stress in predicting depression/anxiety. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 24, 47-65.
8. Boelen, P. A., Van Den Hout, M. A., & Van Den Bout, J. (2006). A cognitive-behavioral conceptualization of complicated grief. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 13, 109-128.
9. Carver, C. S. (1996). Goal engagement and the human experience. In R. S. Wyer (Ed.), Ruminative thoughts: Advances in social cognition (Vol. 9, pp. 49-61). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
10. Ceslowitz, S. B. (1989). Burnout and coping strategies among hospital staff nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 14, 553-557.
11. Chan, D. W., & Hui, E. K. (1995). Burnout and coping among Chinese secondary school teachers in Hong Kong. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 65, 15-25.
12. Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple correlation/regression analysis for the behavioral sciences. UK: Taylor & Francis.
13. Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 385-396.
14. Cohen, S., & Williamson, G. (1988). Perceived stress in a probability sample of the US. In S. Spacapam & S. Oskamp (Eds.), The social psychology of health: Claremont symposium on applied social psychology (pp. 31-67). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
15. Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Nachreiner, F., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2001). The job demands-resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 499-512.
16. Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Sonnentag, S., & Fullagar, C. J. (2012). Work-related flow and energy at work and at home: A study on the role of daily recovery. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33, 276-295.
17. Dickson, K. S., Ciesla, J. A., & Reilly, L. C. (2012). Rumination, worry, cognitive avoidance, and behavioral avoidance: Examination of temporal effects. Behavior Therapy, 43, 629-640.
18. Donahue, E. G., Forest, J., Vallerand, R. J., Lemyre, P. N., Crevier‐ Braud, L., & Bergeron, É. (2012). Passion for work and emotional exhaustion: The mediating role of rumination and recovery. Applied Psychology: Health and Well‐Being, 4, 341-368.
19. Duval, S., & Wicklund, R. A. (1972). A theory of objective self awareness. New York, NY: Academic Press.
20. D’Zurilla, T. J., Chang, E. C., Nottingham, E. J., & Faccini, L. (1998). Social problem solving deficits and hopelessness, depression, and suicidal risk in college students and psychiatric inpatients. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 54, 1091-1107.
21. Eisma, M. C., Stroebe, M. S., Schut, H. A., Stroebe, W., Boelen, P. A., & Van den Bout, J. (2013). Avoidance processes mediate the relationship between rumination and symptoms of complicated grief and depression following loss. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 122, 961-970.
22. Emmons, R. A., Diener, E. D., & Larsen, R. J. (1986). Choice and avoidance of everyday situations and affect congruence: Two models of reciprocal interactionism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 815-826.
23. Ferster, C. (1973). A functional analysis of depression. American Psychologist, 28, 857-870.
24. Folkman, S., Lazarus, R. S., Gruen, R. J., & DeLongis, A. (1986). Appraisal, coping, health status, and psychological symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 571-579.
25. Geisler, M., Buratti, S., & Allwood, C. M. (2019). The complex interplay between emotion regulation and work rumination on exhaustion. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1978.
26. Goffman, E. (1959). The Presentation of Self in everyday life. New York, NY: Doubleday Anchor Books.
27. Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
28. Hewitt, P. L., Flett, G. L., Sherry, S. B., Habke, M., Parkin, M., Lam, R. W., . . . Stein, M. B. (2003). The interpersonal expression of perfection: Perfectionistic self-presentation and psychological distress. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 1303- 1325.
29. Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44, 513-524.
30. Howard, L. W., & Cordes, C. L. (2010). Flight from unfairness: Effects of perceived injustice on emotional exhaustion and employee withdrawal. Journal of Business and Psychology, 25, 409-428.
31. Hyun, M. H., & Kim, M. K. (2013). The mediating effects of self-presentation motivation, self-presentation expectancy and ambivalence over emotional expressiveness on the relationship between internalized shame and social anxiety: Among college students. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 32, 161-176.
32. Jacobson, N. S., Martell, C. R., & Dimidjian, S. (2001). Behavioral activation treatment for depression: Returning to contextual roots. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 8, 255-270.
33. Jeon, S. Y., & Kim, E. J. (2013). The relationship between rumination subtypes (brooding vs reflection) and depression in undergraduate students: The mediating effect of avoidance. Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Korea, 13, 285-306.
34. Johnson, P. O., & Neyman, J. (1936). Tests of certain linear hypotheses and their application to some educational problems. Statistical Research Memoirs, 1, 57-93.
35. Kim, B. N., Lim, Y. J., & Kwon, S. M. (2010). The role of decentering in the relationship between rumination and depressive symptoms. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 29, 573-596.
36. Kim, E. J., & Kim, J. S. (2010). The relation between childhood trauma and early adulthood depression: the mediating effects of early maladaptive schemas, ambivalence over emotional expressiveness and avoidance coping style. The Korean Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 22, 605-630.
37. Kim, M. S., & Seo, Y. S. (2009). The relation between evaluative concern perfectionism and social anxiety: testing the mediating effects of fear of negative evaluation and self-presentational motivation. The Korean Psychological Association, 28, 525-545.
38. Kim, N. J. (1998). Self-Presentational motivation and self-presentational expectancies in social anxiety (Doctoral dissertation), Seoul University, Seoul, Korea.
39. Kim, N. J. (2004). Effects of self-presentational motivation and interpersonal evaluation on social anxiety. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 23, 677-695.
40. King, D. B., & DeLongis, A. (2014). When couples disconnect: Rumination and withdrawal as maladaptive responses to everyday stress. Journal of Family Psychology, 28, 460-469.
41. Kinnunen, U., Feldt, T., Sianoja, M., De Bloom, J., Korpela, K., & Geurts, S. (2017). Identifying long-term patterns of work-related rumination: Associations with job demands and well-being outcomes. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 26, 514-526.
42. Koyuncu, A., Ertekin, E., Ertekin, B. A., Binbay, Z., Yüksel, Ç., Deveci, E., & Tükel, R. (2015). Relationship between atypical depression and social anxiety disorder. Psychiatry Research, 225, 79-84.
43. Krieger, T., Altenstein, D., Baettig, I., Doerig, N., & Holtforth, M. G. (2013). Self-compassion in depression: Associations with depressive symptoms, rumination, and avoidance in depressed outpatients. Behavior Therapy, 44, 501-513.
44. Kubey, R. W. (1986). Television use in everyday life: Coping with unstructured time. Journal of Communication, 36, 108-123.
45. Kuyken, W., & Brewin, C. R. (1994). Stress and coping in depressed women. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 18, 403-412.
46. Larson, R., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1983). Naturalistic approaches to studying social interaction. In H. T. Reis (Ed.), The experience sampling method(pp. 41-56). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
47. Leary, M. R., & Kowalski, R. M. (1990). Impression management: A literature review and two-component model. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 34-47.
48. Leary, M. R., & Kowalski, R. M. (1995). Social phobia: Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment. In R. G. Heimberg, M. R. M. Liebowitz, D. A. Hope, & F. R. Schneier (Eds.), The self-presentation model of social phobia (pp. 94-112). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
49. Lee, J. Y., Kim, S. W., Hong, J. E., Kim, S. Y., Kim, J. M., Shin, I. S., & Yoon, J. S. (2016). The effects of male firefighters’ resilience and personality on perceived stress. Journal of the Korean Society of Biological Therapies in Psychiatry, 22, 209-217.
50. Lewinsohn, P. M. (1974). Essential papers on depression. In Coyne, J. C. (Eds.), A behavioral approach to depression (pp. 150-172). New York, NY: New York University Press.
51. Luo, P., & Bao, Z. (2013). Affectivity, emotional exhaustion, and service sabotage behavior: The mediation role of rumination. Social Behavior and Personality: an International Journal, 41, 651-661.
52. Lynch, J. J., Thomas, S. A., Paskewitz, D. A., Malinow, K. L., & Long, J. M. (1982). Interpersonal aspects of blood pressure control. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 170, 143-153.
53. Lyubomirsky, S., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1993). Self-perpetuating properties of dysphoric rumination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 339-349.
54. Maslach, C. (1993). Burnout: A multidimensional perspective. In W. B. Schaufeli, C. Maslach, & T. Marek (Eds.), Professional burnout: Recent developments in theory and research (pp. 19-32). Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis.
55. Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. E. (1981). The measurement of experienced burnout. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 2, 99-113.
56. Martell, C. R., Addis, M. E., & Jacobson, N. S. (2001). Depression in context: Strategies for guided action. New York, NY: WW Norton & Co.
57. Martell, C. R., Dimidjian, S., & Herman-Dunn, R. (2013). Behavioral activation for depression: A clinician’s guide. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
58. Moulds, M. L., Kandris, E., Starr, S., & Wong, A. C. (2007). The relationship between rumination, avoidance and depression in a non-clinical sample. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 251- 261.
59. Mullen, B., & Suls, J. (1982). The effectiveness of attention and rejection as coping styles: A meta-analysis of temporal differences. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 26, 43-49.
60. Na, Y. J. (2013). The construct validity of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI). Master thesis. Ajou University, Suwon, Korea.
61. Nepon, T., Flett, G. L., Hewitt, P. L., & Molnar, D. S. (2011). Perfectionism, negative social feedback, and interpersonal rumination in depression and social anxiety. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement, 43, 297- 308.
62. Nezlek, J. B., Richardson, D. S., Green, L. R., & Schatten-Jones, E. C. (2002). Psychological well-being and day-to-day social interaction among older adults. Personal Relationships, 9, 57-71.
63. Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1991). Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 569-582.
64. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Morrow, J. (1991). A prospective study of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster: The 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 115-121.
65. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Wisco, B. E., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). Rethinking rumination. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3, 400- 424.
66. Ottenbreit, N. D., & Dobson, K. S. (2004). Avoidance and depression: The construction of the Cognitive–Behavioral Avoidance Scale. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42, 293-313.
67. Papageorgiou, C., & Wells, A. (2001). Metacognitive beliefs about rumination in recurrent major depression. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 8, 160-164.
68. Park, J. O., & Seo, Y. S. (2010). Validation of the perceived stress scale (PSS) on samples of Korean university students. Korean Journal of Psychology, 29, 611-629.
69. Park, J. Y. (2010). The cost of belonging: social activity is highly energycConsuming. Doctoral dissertation, Yonsei University.
70. Perko, K., Kinnunen, U., & Feldt, T. (2017). Long-term profiles of work-related rumination associated with leadership, job demands, and exhaustion: A three-wave study. Work & Stress, 31, 395-420.
71. Polman, R., Borkoles, E., & Nicholls, A. R. (2010). Type D personality, stress, and symptoms of burnout: The influence of avoidance coping and social support. British Journal of Health Psychology, 15, 681-696.
72. Preacher, K. J., Rucker, D. D., & Hayes, A. F. (2007). Addressing moderated mediation hypotheses: Theory, methods, and prescriptions. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 42, 185-227.
73. Prior, M., Smart, D., Sanson, A., & Oberklaid, F. (2000). Does shy-inhibited temperament in childhood lead to anxiety problems in adolescence? Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 461-468.
74. Reis, H. T., Wheeler, L., Kernis, M. H., Spiegel, N., & Nezlek, J. (1985). On specificity in the impact of social participation on physical and psychological health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 456-471.
75. Repetti, R. L. (1989). Effects of daily workload on subsequent behavior during marital interaction: The roles of social withdrawal and spouse support. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 651-659.
76. Rohman, C. R. (1988). A study of burnout among psychologists. Dissertation Abstracts International, 48, 2772.
77. Roger, D., & Jamieson, J. (1988). Individual differences in delayed heart-rate recovery following stress: The role of extraversion, neuroticism and emotional control. Personality and Individual Differences, 9, 721-726.
78. Rubin, K. H., Chen, X., McDougall, P., Bowker, A., & McKinnon, J. (1995). The Waterloo Longitudinal Project: Predicting internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 751-764.
79. Sapolsky, R. M. (1994). Why zebras don’t get ulcers: A guide to stress, stress-related diseases, and coping. New York, NY: Freeman.
80. Schaufeli, W. B., & Enzmann, D. (1998). The burnout companion to study and practice: A critical analysis. London, UK: Taylor and Francis.
81. Schaufeli, W. B., & Taris, T. W. (2005). The conceptualization and measurement of burnout: Common ground and worlds apart. Work & Stress, 19, 256-262.
82. Schlenker, B. R. (1980). Impression management. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.
83. Segal, A., Williams, J. M. G., & Teasdale, J. D. (2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: A new approach to preventing relapse. New York, NY: Guilford.
84. Sonnentag, S., & Fritz, C. (2007). The Recovery Experience Questionnaire: Development and validation of a measure for assessing recuperation and unwinding from work. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12, 204-221.
85. Spurrell, M. T., & McFarlane, A. C. (1995). Life‐events and psychiatric symptoms in a general psychiatry clinic: The role of intrusion and avoidance. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 68, 333-340.
86. Stroebe, M., Boelen, P. A., Van Den Hout, M., Stroebe, W., Salemink, E., & Van Den Bout, J. (2007). Ruminative coping as avoidance. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 257, 462-472.
87. Suh, E. M. (2014). The origin of happiness. Seoul, Korea: BOOK 21 PUBLISHING GROUP.
88. Tataranni, P. A., Larson, D. E., Snitker, S., Young, J. B., Flatt, J. P., & Ravussin, E. (1996). Effects of glucocorticoids on energy metabolism and food intake in humans. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, 271, E317-E325.
89. Taylor, S. E., Seeman, T. E., Eisenberger, N. I., Kozanian, T. A., Moore, A. N., & Moons, W. G. (2010). Effects of a supportive or an unsupportive audience on biological and psychological responses to stress. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98, 47-56.
90. Thayer, R. E. (1989). The biopsychology of mood and arousal. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
91. Thornton, P. I. (1992). The relation of coping, appraisal, and burnout in mental health workers. The Journal of psychology, 126, 261- 271.
92. Treynor, W., Gonzalez, R., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2003). Rumination reconsidered: A psychometric analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27, 247-259.
93. Tyrrell, Z. (2010). A cognitive behavioural model for maintaining processes in burnout. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 3, 18-26.
94. Van der Kaap-Deeder, J., Soenens, B., Boone, L., Vandenkerckhove, B., Stemgée, E., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2016). Evaluative concerns perfectionism and coping with failure: Effects on rumination, avoidance, and acceptance. Personality and Individual Differences, 101, 114-119.
95. Vohs, K. D., Baumeister, R. F., & Ciarocco, N. J. (2005). Self-regulation and self-presentation: Regulatory resource depletion impairs impression management and effortful self-presentation depletes regulatory resources. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 632-657.
96. Watkins, E., & Baracaia, S. (2001). Why do people ruminate in dysphoric moods? Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 723- 734.
97. Wenzlaff, R. M., & Luxton, D. D. (2003). The role of thought suppression in depressive rumination. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27, 293-308.
98. You, S. E., & Kwon, J. H. (1997). The effects of perfectionism, social support, stress, and coping style on depression in the middle-aged woman. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 16, 67-84.