Korean Clinical Psychology Association

Current Issue

Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology - Vol. 39 , No. 1

[ Original Article ]
Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology - Vol. 39 , No. 1 , pp.53-63
ISSN: 2733-4538 (Online)
publication date 28 Feb 2020
Received 08 Oct 2019 Revised 17 Jan 2020 Accepted 27 Jan 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.15842/kjcp.2020.39.1.006

Time Perspective in Individuals with Sluggish Cognitive Tempo
Yelin Park ; Kiho Kim ; Jang-Han Lee
Department of Psychology, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Korea

Correspondence to : Jang-Han Lee, Department of Psychology, Chung-Ang University, 84 Heukseok-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul, Korea; E-mail: clipsy@cau.ac.kr

© 2020 Korean Clinical Psychology Association
Funding Information ▼


Individuals with sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) experience difficulties in achieving goal-directed behaviors. As time perspective (TP) helps elaborate problems in goal pursuit, this study aimed to identify the TP of individuals with SCT and compare it to individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The screening was performed using the Barkley Adult ADHD Rating Scale-IV, and participants were divided into the following groups: SCT & ADHD (n=20), SCT only (n=46), ADHD only (n=22), and healthy controls (n=28). To assess TP, participants also completed the Swedish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. After controlling for depression and anxiety, the SCT only group showed higher present-fatalistic and future-negative TP compared to healthy controls. The ADHD only group showed higher present-hedonistic and futurenegative TP when compared to healthy controls. These results indicate that individuals with SCT have a generally fatalistic attitude and an aversive view of the future, possibly associated with low engagement in social and academic activities. On the other hand, individuals with ADHD have a present-oriented view and an aversive view of the future, possibly related to impulsivity.

Keywords: sluggish cognitive tempo, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, time perspective, present-fatalistic, present-hedonistic, future-negative


This research was supported by the Chung-Ang University Graduate Research Scholarship in 2018. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2018R1D1A1B07050534).

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