Korean Clinical Psychology Association

Current Issue

Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology - Vol. 38 , No. 3

[ Original Article ]
Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology - Vol. 38 , No. 3 , pp.300-307
ISSN: 2466-197X (Online)
publication date 31 Aug 2019
Received 03 Apr 2019 Revised 30 May 2019 Accepted 24 Jun 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.15842/kjcp.2019.38.3.003

The Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition: Psychometric Properties in Korean Adult Populations
Seung-U Lim1 ; Eun-Ho Lee2, ; Soon-Taeg Hwang3 ; Sang-Hwang Hong4 ; Ji-Hae Kim1
1Department of Psychiatry, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
2Depression Center, Department of Psychiatry, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
3Department of Psychology, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Korea
4Department of Education, Chinju National University of Education, Seoul, Korea

Correspondence to : Eun-Ho Lee, Depression Center, Department of Psychiatry, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 81 Irwon-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, Korea; E-mail: eunho1130@gmail.com


© 2019 Korean Clinical Psychology Association

Abstract

The present study evaluated the psychometric characteristics and the factor structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II) among the general population in South Korea. The BDI-II was completed by a total of 1,022 adult participants from South Korea with an average age of 35.61 years. Of the 1,022 participants, 53.9% were females. The Korean version of the BDI-II demonstrated strong internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and had a strong correlation with other depression-related self-report measures. Using confirmatory factor analyses, a bifactor model identified a general factor and two specific factors consisting of somatic group factor and cognitive group factor provided the best fit to the data. These findings suggest that the BDI-II is a useful psychological instrument for assessing and understanding depressive symptoms in the Korean general population. Additionally, these findings provide support for a detailed evaluation of depression by numerous healthcare professionals who require a reliable and valid assessment to screen depression.


Keywords: Beck Depression Inventory-II, BDI-II, depression, reliability, validity, bifactor model

References
1. Al-Musawi, N. M. (2001). Psychometric properties of the Beck depression inventory-II with university students in Bahrain. Journal of Personality Assessment, 77, 568-579.
2. Arnau, R. C., Meagher, M. W., Norris, M. P., & Bramson, R. (2001). Psychometric evaluation of the Beck Depression Inventory-II with primary care medical patients. Health Psychology, 20, 112-119.
3. Beck, A. T., & Steer, R. A. (1990). Manual for the Beck Anxiety Inventory. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
4. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). BDI-II: Beck Depression Inventory Manual (2nd ed.). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
5. Brouwer, D., Meijer, R. R., & Zevalkink, J. (2013). On the factor structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II: G is the key. Psychological Assessment, 25, 136-145.
6. Buckley, T. C., Parker, J. D., & Heggie, J. (2001). A psychometric evaluation of the BDI-II in treatment-seeking substance abusers. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 20, 197-204.
7. Bühler, J., Keller, F., & Läge, D. (2014). Activation as an overlooked factor in the BDI-II: A factor model based on core symptoms and qualitative aspects of depression. Psychological Assessment, 26, 970-979.
8. Cho, M. J. (2011). The Epidemiological survey of mental disorders in Korea. Seoul, Korea: Ministry of Health and Welfare.
9. Choi, H. S., Choi, J. H., Park, K. H., Joo, K. J., Ga, H., Ko, H. J., & Kim, S. R. (2007). Standardization of the Korean version of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 as a screening instrument for major depressive disorder. Journal of the Korean Academy and Family Medicine, 28, 114-119.
10. Dozois, D. J., Dobson, K. S., & Ahnberg, J. L. (1998). A psychometric evaluation of the Beck Depression Inventory–II. Psychological Assessment, 10, 83-89.
11. Ghassemzadeh, H., Mojtabai, R., Karamghadiri, N., & Ebrahimkhani, N. (2005). Psychometric properties of a Persian-language version of the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition: BDI-II-PERSIAN. Depression and Anxiety, 21, 185-192.
12. Hahn, D. W., Lee, C. H., & Chon, K. K. (1996). Korean adaptation of Spielberger's STAI (K-STAI). Korean Journal of Health Psychology, 1, 1-14.
13. Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1-55.
14. Kapci, E. G., Uslu, R., Turkcapar, H., & Karaoglan, A. (2008). Beck Depression Inventory II: Evaluation of the psychometric properties and cut-off points in a Turkish adult population. Depression and Anxiety, 25, E104-110.
15. Kessler, R. C., Adler, L., Ames, M., Demler, O., Faraone, S., Hiripi, E., . . . Walters, E. E. (2005). The World Health Organization Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS): A short screening scale for use in the general population. Psychological Medicine, 35, 245-256.
16. Kim, J. H., Lee, E. H., & Joung, Y. S. (2013). The WHO adult ADHD Self-Report Scale: Reliability and validity of the Korean version. Psychiatry Investigation, 10, 41-46.
17. Kojima, M., Furukawa, T. A., Takahashi, H., Kawai, M., Nagaya, T., & Tokudome, S. (2002). Cross-cultural validation of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in Japan. Psychiatry Research, 110, 291-299.
18. Lee, S. H., Kim, B., Choi, T. K., & Lee, M. H. (2014). Long-standing depression and anxiety in a Korean woman. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 171, 622-624.
19. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2010). Mplus 6.1. Statistical analysis with latent variables: User’s guide (Version 6.1). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
20. Osman, A., Barrios, F. X., Gutierrez, P. M., Williams, J. E., & Bailey, J. (2008). Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in nonclinical adolescent samples. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 64, 83-102.
21. Osman, A., Downs, W. R., Barrios, F. X., Kopper, B. A., Gutierrez, P. M., & Chiros, C. E. (1997). Factor structure and psychometric characteristics of the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 19, 359-376.
22. Plant, E. A., & Sachs-Ericsson, N. (2004). Racial and ethnic differences in depression: The roles of social support and meeting basic needs. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 41-52.
23. Reise, S. P., Scheines, R., Widaman, K. F., & Haviland, M. G. (2013). Multidimensionality and structural coefficient bias in structural equation modeling: A bifactor perspective. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 73, 5-26.
24. Rodriguez, A., Reise, S. P., & Haviland, M. G. (2016). Evaluating bifactor models: Calculating and interpreting statistical indices. Psychological Methods, 21, 137-150.
25. Shafer, A. B. (2006). Meta-analysis of the factor structures of four depression questionnaires: Beck, CES-D, Hamilton, and Zung. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62, 123-146.
26. Storch, E. A., Roberti, J. W., & Roth, D. A. (2004). Factor structure, concurrent validity, and internal consistency of the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition in a sample of college students. Depression and Anxiety, 19, 187-189.
27. Subica, A. M., Fowler, J. C., Elhai, J. D., Frueh, B. C., Sharp, C., Kelly, E. L., & Allen, J. G. (2014). Factor structure and diagnostic validity of the Beck Depression Inventory-II with adult clinical inpatients: Comparison to a gold-standard diagnostic interview. Psychological Assessment, 26, 1106-1115.
28. Vanheule, S., Desmet, M., Groenvynck, H., Rosseel, Y., & Fontaine, J. (2008). The factor structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II: An evaluation. Assessment, 15, 177-187.
29. Viljoen, J. L., Iverson, G. L., Griffiths, S., & Woodward, T. S. (2003). Factor Structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in a medical outpatient sample. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 10, 289-291.
30. Ward, L. C. (2006). Comparison of factor structure models for the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Psychological Assessment, 18, 81-88.
31. Whisman, M. A., Perez, J. E., & Ramel, W. (2000). Factor structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II) in a student sample. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 56, 545-551.
32. World Health Organization. (2001). The World Health Report 2001: Mental health: new understanding, new hope.