Korean Clinical Psychology Association

Current Issue

Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology - Vol. 38 , No. 3

[ Original Article ]
Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology - Vol. 38 , No. 2 , pp.182-198
ISSN: 2466-197X (Online)
publication date 31 May 2019
Received 27 Nov 2018 Revised 31 Jan 2019 Accepted 19 Feb 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.15842/kjcp.2019.38.2.005

감사개입이 대학생의 취업스트레스 및 정신건강변인들에 미치는 효과 및 매개변인으로서 삶의 의미
권혁우 1 ; 조용래 1, 2,
1한림대학교 심리학과
2한림대학교 한림응용심리연구소

Effects of Gratitude Intervention on Job-Seeking Stress and Mental Health Variables and Meaning in Life as Its Mediator
Hyukwoo Kwon1 ; Yongrae Cho1, 2,
1Department of Psychology, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Korea
2Hallym Institute for Applied Psychology, Chuncheon, Korea
Correspondence to : Yongrae Cho, Department of Psychology, Hallym University, 1 Hallimdaehak-gil, Chuncheon, Korea; E-mail: yrcho@hallym.ac.kr


© 2019 Korean Clinical Psychology Association

초록

본 연구는 감사개입이 대학생의 취업불안과 학업스트레스 및 정신건강변인들을 개선하는 데 효과적인지 검증하고자 하였다. 또한 그 작용기제를 규명하기 위해, 선행연구와 문헌들에 기초하여, 본 연구에서는 삶의 의미를 잠정적인 매개변인으로 상정하고 그 효과를 검토하였다. 취업스트레스를 호소하고 본 연구에 참여하기로 동의한 대학생들을 대상으로 감사개입과, 그 비교조건으로 심리교육을 제공하였다. 감사개입 집단(17명)과 심리교육 집단(20명)의 참가자들은 각 집단의 목적에 상응하는 4회기의 처치를 받았다. 연구 결과, 감사개입은 심리교육에 비해 취업불안 스트레스, 학업 스트레스, 우울증상, 지각된 스트레스를 완화하고, 삶의 만족, 정신적 웰빙 및 행복을 증진하는 데 더 효과적이었다. 더불어, 학업 스트레스에 대한 감사개입의 효과는 삶의 의미의 증진에 의해 완전매개되었고, 지각된 스트레스, 삶의 만족, 정신적 웰빙 및 행복에 대한 감사개입의 효과는 삶의 의미의 증진에 의해 부분매개되었다. 결론적으로, 이러한 결과들은 감사개입이 대학생의 취업스트레스와 여러 가지 정신건강변인들을 개선하는 데 효과적이라는 점과, 이러한 효과들은 삶의 의미의 증진에 의해 매개될 가능성을 시사한다. 끝으로, 본 연구의 이론적 및 실제적 의의와 제한점에 관하여 논의하였다.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of a gratitude intervention for reducing job seeking stress and improving mental health variables among undergraduate students. Moreover, to shed light on its mechanism of action, we proposed and examined meaning in life as a potential mediator of treatment efficacy, based on literature review. A gratitude intervention was provided to undergraduate students who suffered from job-seeking stress and had agreed to participate in the study. A comparison group was given psycho-education. Both participants in the gratitude intervention (n=17) and in the psychoeducation conditions (n=20) received four-session interventions corresponding to the purpose of each condition. Compared with the participants in the psycho-education condition, those in the gratitude intervention condition demonstrated a decrease in job-seeking anxiety, academic stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived stress, as well as an increase in life satisfaction, mental well-being, and happiness. Moreover, improvement in meaning in life partially mediated the efficacy of the gratitude intervention on perceived stress, life satisfaction, mental well-being, and happiness, and also fully mediated its efficacy on academic stress. These results suggest that gratitude intervention is an efficacious intervention for job-seeking stress and various mental health variables among undergraduate students, and that its efficacy may be mediated through increase in meaning in life. Finally, theoretical and practical implications and limitations of the study’s findings are discussed.


Keywords: gratitude intervention, job-seeking stress, meaning in life, happiness, mental health
키워드: 감사개입, 취업스트레스, 삶의 의미, 행복, 정신건강

Acknowledgments

This article has been produced in part from the master's thesis of the first author, taken under supervision of the second author.


References
1. Adler, M. G., & Fagley, N. S. (2005). Appreciation: Individual differences in finding value and meaning as a unique predictor of subjective well‐being. Journal of Personality, 73, 79-114..
2. Ahn, S. Y., Kim, J. H., & Choi, B. Y. (2015). Meta-Analysis on variables related to suicidal ideation among college students. Korean Journal of School Psychology, 12, 385-405..
3. Aldao, A., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Schweizer, S. (2010). Emotion-regulation strategies across psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 217-237..
4. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173..
5. Cheng, S. T., Tsui, P. K., & Lam, J. H. (2015). Improving mental health in health care practitioners: Randomized controlled trial of a gratitude intervention. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 83, 177-186..
6. Cho, H. C. (2013). A study on the stress involved in preparing for employment on college student’s happiness: The moderating effects of social support. Studies on Korean Youth, 24, 157-184..
7. Cho, J. S. (2015). The moderating effect of appreciation trait in the relationship between complex trauma and military adjustment: Psychological maladjustment and living adjustment (master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/search/detail/DetailView.do?p_mat_type=be54d9b8bc7cdb09&control_no=f69e8c5db7acd620ffe0bdc3ef48d419#redirect.
8. Cho, Y. R. (2012). Effects of and mechanism of regulation intervention for improving psychological health: Mediating roles of emotion dysregulation and mindfulness. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 31, 773-799..
9. Cho, Y. R. (2018). The relationships between home meditation practice and the outcomes of a mindfulness-based emotion regulation intervention and self-compassion as a mediator. Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Korea, 18, 23-53..
10. Cho, Y. R., Chai, S. H., & Choi, Y. S. (2009) The roles of experiential avoidance and mindful attention awareness in depressive and anxiety symptoms and in well-being. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 28, 1135-1154..
11. Choi, M. S. (2011). The relationship of self-esteem, mental health, perceived social support & social avoidance and distress according to purpose in life. Korean Journal of Health Psychology, 16, 363-377..
12. Choi, M. S., & Son, C. N. (2009). The effect of the logotherapy program on faith maturity and mental health. Korean Journal of Health Psychology, 28, 853-875..
13. Choi, S. H., & Lee, H. Y. (2013). Affecting factors in unemployment stress among college students-focused on physical symptoms, depression, anxiety and self-esteem. Journal of the Korea Contents Association, 13, 808-816..
14. Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 385-396..
15. Debats, D. L., Drost, J., & Hansen, P. (1995). Experiences of meaning in life: A combined qualitative and quantitative approach. British Journal of Psychology, 86, 359-375..
16. Diener, E. D., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71-75..
17. Emmons, R. A., & Stern, R. (2013). Gratitude as a psychotherapeutic intervention. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69, 846-855..
18. Garnefski, N., Boon, S., &Kraaij, V. (2003). Relationships between cognitive strategies of adolescents and depressive symptomatology across different types of life event. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 32, 401-408..
19. Ha, J. H., & An, S. H. (2008). The verification of a structural relationship model of suicidal ideation to stress, coping styles, perfectionism, depression, and impulsivity. The Korean Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 20, 1149-1171..
20. Han, C. S., Ahn, J. S. M., Kwak, J. H., Pae, C. U., Steffens, D., Jo, I. H., & Park, M. H. (2008). Validation of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Korean version in the elderly population: the Asan Geriatric study. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 49, 218-223..
21. Han, J. K. (2008). The mediational effect of the happiness factor in the relationship between mindfulness levels and quality of life. The Korean Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 20, 735-751..
22. Han, K. S., & Suh, K. H. (2015). Relationships between job-seeking stress and subjective well-being: Focus on the role of resilience. The Korean Journal of Health Psychology, 20, 235-251..
23. Han, S. M., & Cho, Y. R. (2015). Short-Term effects of and mechanism of changes in a group positive psychology intervention for improving psychological health: Mediating role of strengths use. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 34, 909-943..
24. Hayes, A. F. (2015). An index and test of linear moderated mediation. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 50, 1-22..
25. Heo, J. C. (2016). Effect of gratitude enhancement program on meaning of life and subjective well-being of female colleges. Journal of the Korea Contents Association, 16, 774-784..
26. Hwang, S. W. (1998). A study on employment stress of university students (master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/search/detail/DetailView.do?p_mat_type=be54d9b8bc7cdb09&control_no=b6046c05c4f38a6b.
27. Jeon, H. O. (2014). The influence of job-seeking stress, adult attachment and self-assertiveness on depression among Korean college students. Journal of the Korea Contents Association, 14, 312-323..
28. Jo, E. G., & Kim, J. U. (2014). The influences of gratitude disposition on job-seeking efficacy and job-seeking anxiety of university students. The Journal of Career Education Research, 27, 95-112..
29. Jo, E. J., & Son, C. N. (2016). Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy (CBT) on employment stress, dysfunctional attitude, and depression of college students. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 35, 121-138..
30. Jo, J. H., Kim, K. M., Kim, D. W., & Kim, J. H. (2008). The effect of keeping an appreciation journal on subjective well-Being, self-Esteem, self-Efficacy, gratitude disposition, and physical/mental health. Discourse 201, 11, 75-101..
31. Kang, K. Y., & Chang, M. S. (2014). The combined effects of K-MBSR and CAP+: on employment stress, mental health, career self-efficacy of college prospective graduate. The Korean Society for the Study of Vocational Education, 33, 19-41..
32. Kang, S. A., Kim, H. W., & Park, B. J. (2016). The moderating effect of resilience in relation between job seeking stress, socially prescribed perfectionism and depression of university students. Korean Journal of Youth Studies, 23, 77-98..
33. Kang, Y. R. (2006). The influence of job seeking stress on their career maturity dance majoring students (master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/search/detail/DetailView.do?p_mat_type=be54d9b8bc7cdb09&control_no=158e367d2f669851ffe0bdc3ef48d419#redirect.
34. Keyes, C. L. M. (2002). The mental health continuum: From languishing to flourishing in life. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 43, 207-222..
35. Keyes, C. L. M. (2003). Complete mental health: An agenda for the 21st century. In C. L. M. Keyes & J. Haidt (Eds.), Flourishing: Positive psychology and the life well-lived (pp. 293-312). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press..
36. Keyes, C. L. M., Wissing, M., Potgieter, J. P., Temane, M., Kruger, A., & van Rooy, S. (2008). Evaluation of the mental health continuum-short form (MHC-SF) in Setswana-speaking South Africans. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 15, 181-192..
37. Killen, A., & Macaskill, A. (2015). Using a gratitude intervention to enhance well-being in older adults. Journal of Happiness Studies, 16, 947-964..
38. Kim, B. J. (2011). A study of life events influenced on happiness of college students. Korean Journal of Social and Personality Psychology, 25, 115-135..
39. Kim, B. N., & Yi, I. H. (2009). Influence of gratitude perception on self-focused attention and depression: Gratitude disposition and gratitude treatment. Korean Journal of Health Psychology, 14, 363-382..
40. Kim, H. N. (2015). Effectiveness of gratitude enhancement program for elderly depression (master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/search/detail/DetailView.do?p_mat_type=be54d9b8bc7cdb09&control_no=8f688d32fa9160f1ffe0bdc3ef48d419.
41. Kim, H. S., & Chae, K. M. (2014). The study of the mediating effects of the early maladaptive schemas on the relationships between job-seeking stress and suicidal ideation. Korean Journal of Youth Studies, 21, 1-26..
42. Kim, K. M., & Kim, J. H. (2011). A qualitative study on the gratitude experience based on the ground theory. The Korean Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 23, 739-759..
43. Kim, K. W., & Cho, Y. H. (2011). Mediation and moderation effects of self-efficacy between career stress and college adjustment among freshmen. Korean Journal of Youth Studies, 18, 197-218..
44. Kim, M. O., & Park, Y. S. (2012). The relationship between career preparing behavior and jobs seeking stress in university students: Moderation effect of career decision-making self-efficacy. Korean Journal of Youth Studies, 19, 69-90..
45. Kim, M. Y. (2009). The effects of extraversion and gratitude training on subjective well-being (master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/search/detail/DetailView.do?p_mat_type=be54d9b8bc7cdb09&control_no=f12d79f5c9407816ffe0bdc3ef48d419#redirect.
46. Kim, M. Y. (2017). The relationship between job-seeking stress and psychological well-being of college students: Verification of moderated mediation effect for intolerance of uncertainty through hope. Korean Journal of Youth Studies, 24, 29-51..
47. Kim, S. K. (2003). Life stress in freshman and adjustment to college. Korean Journal of Youth Studies, 10, 215-237..
48. Kroenke, K., & Spitzer, R. L. (2002). The PHQ-9: A new depression diagnostic and severity measure. Psychiatric Annals, 32, 509-515..
49. Kwon, M. J. (2015). The influence of college students’ job-seeking stress on emotional well-being: The moderating effects of putting into perspective and positive refocusing (master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/search/detail/DetailView.do?p_mat_type=be54d9b8bc7cdb09&control_no=907b4f0502e6164cffe0bdc3ef48d419.
50. Kwon, S. M. (2009). Development of the Subjective Happiness Scale. Unpublished manuscript..
51. Lee, J. E. (2005). The effects of self-complexity and self-efficacy on depression and perceived stress (master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/search/detail/DetailView.do?p_mat_type=be54d9b8bc7cdb09&control_no=8acf5a0a27118f24ffe0bdc3ef48d419.
52. Lee, J. E., Kim, J. H., & Kim, M. R. H. (2016). The effects of appreciation journal use on depression, subjective well-being, optimism and cognitive emotion regulation strategies among women’s university students with depression tendencies. The Korean Journal of Health Psychology, 21, 19-46..
53. Lee, J. H. (2014). Effects of career indecision and job-seeking stress of college students on depression (master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/search/detail/DetailView.do?p_mat_type=be54d9b8bc7cdb09&control_no=0455ef6964650d45ffe0bdc3ef48d419.
54. Lee, S. M. (2016). The effects and mechanism of Gestalt Relationship Improvement Program (GRIP) on the stress and depression of youths preparing for jobs: Mediating effects of self-esteem and self-encouragement (master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/search/detail/DetailView.do?p_mat_type=be54d9b8bc7cdb09&control_no=85ad5a4e1b9befdfffe0bdc3ef48d419.
55. Lim, Y. J., Ko, Y. G., Shin, H. C., & Cho, Y. R. (2012). Psychometric evaluation of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) in South Koreans. Korean Journal of Psychology: General, 31, 369-386..
56. Moon, E. J. (2014). Gratitude program development for college students. The Korean Journal of School Psychology, 11, 541-562..
57. Nam, J. H., & Cho, Y. A. (2017). The relationship between the job seeking stress and the internet addiction: The mediating effects of mindfulness. The Korean Association of Military Counseling, 6, 31-49..
58. Noh, J. H. (2015). Development and effectiveness of internet-based multi-component gratitude therapy (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/search/detail/DetailView.do?p_mat_type=be54d9b8bc7cdb09&control_no=bfd1c2f36e2dcd7cffe0bdc3ef48d419.
59. Noh, J. H., & Lee, M. G. (2011). Why should I be thankful?: The effects of gratitude on well-being in individuals under stress. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 30, 159-183..
60. Noh, J. H., & Lee, M. G. (2012). Development and validation of the Korean version of the Appreciation Scale. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 31, 329-354..
61. Oh, S. J. (2013). The effect of Gestalt Relationship Improvement Program (GRIP) on Job-seek stress (master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/search/detail/DetailView.do?p_mat_type=be54d9b8bc7cdb09&control_no=b07b39fa2123a84bffe0bdc3ef48d419#redirect.
62. Park, J. H., & Suh, E. K. (2005). Lay beliefs of selfhood and personal theories of happiness. Korean Journal of Social and Personality Psychology, 19, 19-31..
63. Park, S. Y., & Kwon, S. M. (2012). A theoretical review with clinical implications for the meaning in life. Korean Journal of Psychology: General, 31, 741-768..
64. Seo, E. J. (2010). Difference between the effects of writing appreciation letters and forgiveness letters upon high school students’ happiness enhancement (master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/search/detail/DetailView.do?p_mat_type=be54d9b-8bc7cdb09&control_no=f62ce37800598f1fffe0bdc3ef48d419#redirect.
65. Seo, I. K., & Lee, Y. S. (2014). To verify a mediation effect of depression between university student’s job-seeking stress and considering suicide: Comparing between a female group and male group. Korean Association of Adolescent Welfare, 16, 25-53..
66. Shepherd, M., Cooper, B., Brown, A. C., & Kalton, G. W. (1996). Psychiatric illness in general practice. London: Oxford University Press..
67. Shim, J. E., An, H. Y., & Kim, J. H. (2011). The relationship between job-seeking stress and depression in college students: The mediating roles of cognitive emotion regulation strategies. Journal of Human Understanding and Counseling, 32, 103-118..
68. Shim, M. J. (2013). The effects of a career group counseling program for prospective college graduates on job-seeking stress and career maturity (master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/search/detail/DetailView.do?p_mat_type=be54d9b8bc7cdb09&control_no=65e0871c5559326affe0bdc3ef48d419.
69. Shin, H. K., & Chang, J. Y. (2003). The relationship among personality characteristics, gender, job-seeking stress and mental health in college seniors. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 22, 815-827..
70. Sim, E. J. (2013). The effect of grateful disposition the relationships between lifes tresses of university students and psychological well-being (master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/search/detail/DetailView.do?p_mat_type=be54d9b8bc7cdb09&control_no=5e6f5b65b2ed82ffffe0bdc3ef48d419#redirect.
71. Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation models. Sociological Methodology, 13, 290-312..
72. Son, S., & Suh, K. H. (2014). Relationships between gratitude disposition and psychological well-being: Focus on the mediating effects of interpersonal competence. Korean Journal of Health Psychology, 19, 619-635..
73. Steger, M. F., Frazier, P., Oishi, S., & Kaler, M. (2004). The development and validation of the meaning in life questionnaire. Unpublished Manuscript..
74. Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (2004). Posttraumatic growth: Conceptual foundations and empirical evidence. Psychological Inquiry, 15, 1-18..
75. Troy, A. S., & Mauss, I. B. (2011). Resilience in the face of stress: Emotion regulation as a protective factor. Resilience and Mental Health: Challenges across the Life Span, 1, 30-44..
76. Won, D. R., Kim, K. H., & Kwon, S. J. (2005). Validation of the Korean version of Meaning in Life Questionnaire. Korean Journal of Health Psychology, 10, 211-225..
77. Wood, A. M., Froh, J. J., & Geraghty, A. W. A. (2010). Gratitude and well-being: A review and theoretical integration. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 890-905..
78. World Health Organization. (2005). Promoting mental health: Concepts, emerging evidence, and practice. A report of the World Health Organization, Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse in collaboration with the Victorian Health Promotion Foundation and the University of Melbourne. World Health Organization. Geneva..
79. Yang, H. J., & Kim, E. J. (2016). The relationship among self-complexity, depression, perceived stress, and satisfaction with life: The moderational effects of harmony and importance of self-aspects. Korean Journal of Health Psychology, 21, 173-193..
80. Yang, J. H. (2013). The effects of thanks journal writing on preservice early childhood teacher’s gratitude, self-esteem, and happiness. Journal of Early Childhood Education, 33, 259-280..
81. Ye, H. J. (2016). The effects of job-seeking stress on the gambling behavior in college students (master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/search/detail/DetailView.do?p_mat_type=be54d9b8bc7cdb09&control_no=d54bbcef14d4bdacffe0bdc3ef48d419.
82. Yoo, S. K., Park, E. S., Kim, S. J., & Cho, H. J. (2014). Meta-analytic review on the relationship between meaning in life and mental health (Mainly of domestic studies between 1996-2013). Korean Journal of Psychology: General, 33, 441-465..
83. Zlomke, K. R., & Hahn, K. S. (2010). Cognitive emotion regulation strategies: Gender differences and associations to worry. Personality and Individual Differences, 48, 408-413..