|About the Journal||Editorial Board||For Contributors||Browse Archives||Ethical Principles|
You are not permitted to access the full text of articles.
If you have any questions about permissions,
please contact the Society.
회원님은 논문 이용 권한이 없습니다.
권한 관련 문의는 학회로 부탁 드립니다.
|[ Original Article ]|
|Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology - Vol. 38 , No. 1
|ISSN: 2733-4538 (Online)|
| publication date 28 Feb 2019|
|Received 14 Sep 2018 Revised 31 Dec 2018 Accepted 31 Dec 2018|
|스마트폰 중독 위험 대학생들의 스마트폰의 과다사용, 일상적 기능의 손상 및 정신건강에 대한 마음챙김에 기반을 둔 개입의 효능 및 자기조절력의 매개 역할|
Efficacy of a Mindfulness-Based Intervention for Smartphone Overuse, Functional Impairment, and Mental Health among Undergraduate Students at Risk for Smartphone Addiction and the Mediating Role of Self-Regulation
|Department of Psychology, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Korea|
|Correspondence to : †Yongrae Cho, Department of Psychology, Hallym University, 1 Hallimdaehak-gil, Chuncheon, Korea; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org|
*She now works at Bomnae Hospital, Chuncheon.
© 2019 Korean Clinical Psychology Association
스마트폰 중독에 대한 예방적 개입의 개발과 적용에 대한 필요성이 꾸준히 증가하고 있다. 이러한 필요성에 부응하여, 본 연구는 마음챙김에 기반을 둔 개입이 스트레스 관리 교육에 비하여, 대학생 스마트폰 중독 위험 집단의 스마트폰 과다사용, 일상적 기능의 손상 및 정신건강을 개선하는데 더 효과적인지를 검증하기 위하여 시행되었다. 아울러, 그 작용 기제를 규명하기 위하여, 선행연구와 문헌에 기초하여 자기조절력을 잠정적인 매개변인으로 상정하였다. 본 연구에 참여하기로 동의한 대학생들 중 스마트폰 중독 척도에 기초하여 위험 집단에 해당되는 40명이 총 4회기(주 1회, 1회에 약 1시간 30분 소요)로 구성된 마음챙김에 기반을 둔 개입 조건(21명)과 스트레스 관리 교육 조건(19명)에 배정되었다. 연구 결과, 마음챙김에 기반을 둔 개입은 스트레스 관리 교육에 비해 스마트폰 과다사용, 일상적 기능의 손상, 정신적 웰빙, 자기조절력, 우울 및 스트레스 증상을 개선하는 데 더 효과적이었다. 나아가, 스마트폰 과다사용과 일상적 기능의 손상에 대한 마음챙김에 기반을 둔 개입의 효과는 자기조절력의 향상에 의해 부분 매개되었고, 스트레스 증상에 대한 마음챙김에 기반을 둔 개입의 효과는 자기조절력의 향상에 의해 완전 매개되었다. 결론적으로, 이러한 결과들은 마음챙김 명상이 스마트폰 중독 위험 대학생들의 스마트폰 과다사용, 일상적 기능의 손상 및 정신건강을 개선하는 데 있어서 효과적인 개입이며, 이러한 효과가 자기조절력의 향상에 의해 매개될 가능성을 시사한다.
The current research was conducted to examine the efficacy of a mindfulness-based intervention for reducing smartphone overuse and functional impairment and improving mental health among undergraduate students at risk for smartphone addiction. Moreover, to shed light on its mechanism of action, we proposed self-regulation as a potential mediator of treatment efficacy, based on literature review. Of the undergraduate students who agreed to participate in the study, 40 participants who were classified as being at-risk, based on the Smartphone Addiction Scale, were assigned to one of two conditions: mindfulness- based intervention (n=21) and stress management education (n=19). Both the interventions consisted of four 90-minute weekly sessions. Compared to the participants in the stress management education group, those in the mindfulness-based intervention group demonstrated a decrease in smartphone overuse, depression and stress symptoms, functional impairment, as well as an increase in mental well-being and self-regulation. Moreover, improvement in self-regulation partially mediated the efficacy of the mindfulness-based intervention on smartphone overuse and functional impairment, and also fully mediated its efficacy on stress symptoms. These results suggest that mindfulness-based meditation is a useful intervention for reducing smartphone overuse and functional impairment and improving mental health among undergraduate students at risk for smartphone addiction, and that its efficacy may be mediated through an increase in self-regulation.
|Keywords: smartphone addiction, mindfulness-based intervention, self-regulation, functional impairment, mental well-being
키워드: 스마트폰 중독, 마음챙김에 기반을 둔 개입, 자기조절력, 일상적 기능의 손상, 정신적 웰빙
|1.||Antony, M. M., Bieling, P. J., Cox, B. J., Enns, M. W., & Swinson, R. P. (1998). Psychometric properties of the 42-item and 21-item versions of the depression anxiety stress scales in clinical groups and a community sample. Psychological Assessment, 10, 176-181.
|2.||Bae, S. Y. (2011). The effects of mindfulness-based meditation on psychological wellbeing and motivation for change of alcohol dependent patients (master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/search/detail/DetailView.do?p_mat_type=be54d9b8bc7-cdb09&control_no=75bc4373979f19d6ffe0bdc3ef48d419.|
|3.||Bakeman, R. (2005). Recommended effect size statistics for repeated measures designs. Behavior Research Methods, 37, 379-384.
|4.||Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182.
|5.||Beutler, L. E., & Hamblin, D. L. (1986). Individualized outcome measures of internal change: Methodological considerations. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 48.
|6.||Brewer, J. A., Elwafi, H. M., & Davis, J. H. (2013). Craving to quit: Psychological models and neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness training as treatment for addictions. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 27, 366-379.
|7.||Cha, E. S., Park, M. Y., & Kim, G. A. (2008). A comparison analysis of somatotype, physical activity, mental health, healthy behavior between normal weight and overweight college students in Korea. Korean Journal of Health Promotion, 8, 245-255.|
|8.||Cho, Y. C., Park. H. G., Chang, M. S., & Kwak, H. W. (2016). Attentional bias toward smartphone-relevant stimuli in smartphone addictive tendency: Using comparison blindness Task. The Korean Journal of Cognitive and Biological Psychology, 28, 25-43.
|9.||Cho, Y. (2012). Effects of and mechanisms of changes in a group mindfulness-based emotion regulation intervention for improving psychological health: Mediating roles of emotion dysregulation and mindfulness. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 31, 773-799.
|10.||Choi, H. J., & Chung, K. M. (2016). Effects of feedback intervention on decrease of smartphone usage of smartphone addiction risk group of college students. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 35, 365-391.
|11.||Diehl, M., Semegon, A. B., & Schwarzer, R. (2006). Assessing attention control in goal pursuit: A component of dispositional self-regulation. Journal of Personality Assessment, 86, 306-317.
|12.||Elwafi, H. M., Witkiewitz, K., Mallik, S., Thomas, A., Thornhill, T. A., & Brewer, J. A. (2013). Mindfulness training for smoking cessation: Moderation of the relationship between craving and cigarette use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 130, 222-229.
|13.||Flavell, J. H. (1987). Speculations about the nature and development of metacognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.|
|14.||Fresco, D. M., Moore, M. T., van Dulmen, M. H., Segal, Z. V., Ma, S. H., Teasdale, J. D., & Williams, J. M. G. (2007). Initial psychometric properties of the experiences questionnaire: Validation of a self-report measure of decentering. Behavior Therapy, 38, 234-246.
|15.||Goldberg, I. (1996). Internet addiction disorder. Retrieved from http://www.webs.ulpgc.es/aeps/JR/Documentos/ciberadictos.doc.|
|16.||Hofmann, S. G. (2004). Cognitive mediation of treatment change in social phobia. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 392.
|17.||Hwang, K. H., Yoo, Y. S., & Cho, O. H. (2012). Smartphone overuse and upper extremity pain, anxiety, depression, and interpersonal relationships among college students. The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, 12, 365-375.
|18.||Jang, A. L. (2013). The effects of cognitive behavior therapy for nursing college students with irritable bowel syndrome (doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/search/detail/DetailView.do?p_mat_type=be54d9b8bc7cdb09&control_no=3fdfb86511e43508ffe0bdc3ef48d419.|
|19.||Jang, H. J., & Jeon, Y. J. (2016). The effect of introversion·extroversion and interpersonal satisfaction on smart phone addiction perceived by university students. Korean Journal of Human Ecology, 25, 137-152.
|20.||Jeon, H. S., & Jang, S. O. (2014). A study on the influence of depression and stress on smartphone addiction among university students: Focused on moderating effect of gender. Korean Journal of Youth Studies, 21, 103-129.|
|21.||Jeon, M. A., & Kim, J. M. (2011). The effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for emotion regulation in a patient group. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 30, 113-135.
|22.||Jo, H. O. (2012). Differences in middle school students’ self-esteem, impulsiveness and perceived stress according to level of smart-phone addiction (master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/search/detail/DetailView.do?p_mat_type=be54d9b8bc7cdb09&control_no=a5aa7f9bcbb087f1ffe0bdc3ef48d419#redirect.|
|23.||Jung, E. S., & Son, C. N. (2011). Effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on internet addiction level, anxiety, and stress in college students with internet addiction. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 30, 825-843.
|24.||Jung, J. Y., & Park, S. H. (2010). Sati in early buddhism and mindfulness in current psychology: A proposal for establishing the construct of mindfulness. Korean Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 22, 1-32.|
|25.||Jung, M. J. (2014). A study on the effects of self-regulation and peer conformity on smart phone addiction in adolescence (master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/search/detail/DetailView.do?p_mat_type=be54d9b8bc7cdb09&control_no=63354807acddab64ffe0bdc3ef48d419.|
|26.||Kabat-Zinn, J., Wheeler, E., Light, T., Skillings, A., Scharf, M. J., Cropley, T. G., . . . & Bernhard, J. D. (1998). Influence of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction intervention on rates of skin clearing in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis undergoing photo therapy (UVB) and photochemotherapy (PUVA). Psychosomatic Medicine, 60, 625-632.
|27.||Kang, J. Y. (2012). The effect of stress and the way of stress coping, impulsivity of employees on smart-phone addiction (master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/search/detail/DetailView.do?p_mat_type=be54d9b8bc7cdb09&control_no=70a8a1baba09d1f8ffe0bdc3ef48d419.|
|28.||Kang, K. H. (2015). The effects of mindfulness meditation on smartphone usage time of users with smartphone addiction tendency: The mediating effects of working memory and implicit attitude (master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/search/detail/DetailView.do?p_mat_type=be54d9b8bc7cdb09&control_no=3f118844607b4aa3ffe0bdc3ef48d419.|
|29.||Keyes, C. L. M. (2002). The mental health continuum: From languishing to flourishing in life. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 43, 207-222.
|30.||Kim, B. N., Ko, E. J., & Choi, H. I. (2013). A study on factors affecting smart-phone addiction in university students: A focus on differences in classifying risk groups. Studies on Korean Youth, 24, 67-98.|
|31.||Kim, D. I., Jung, Y. J., & Lee, Y. H. (2013). Delphi study on concepts and components of smart media addiction. Asian Journal of Education, 14, 49-71.
|32.||Kim, J. M. (2008). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for emotion regulation. Unpublished manuscript.|
|33.||Kim, J. M., & Jeon, M. A. (2009). The effects of mindfulness -based cognitive therapy on emotion regulation of students. The Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 28, 741-759.
|34.||Kim, K. H. (2008). Mindfulness, self-regulation, and wisdom. The Korean Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 285-306.
|35.||Kim, M. K. (2014). A Study on job preparing stress and depression influencing on smartphone addiction in university students: Focusing on moderating effect of self-control. Journal of the Korea Institute of Youth Facility and Environment, 12, 117-126.|
|36.||Kim, S. J. (2012). The development and verification of mindfulness-based self-regulation program for internet craving (doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/search/detail/DetailView.do?p_mat_type=be54d9b8bc7cdb09&control_no=4fc3d8819778c593ffe0bdc3ef48d419.|
|37.||Kraemer, H. C., Wilson, G. T., Fairburn, C. G., & Agras, W. S. (2002). Mediators and moderators of treatment effects in randomized clinical trials. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 877-883.
|38.||Lee, M. K. (2004). Adjustment and mental health in modern life. Seoul, Korea: Kyoyookgwahaksa.|
|39.||Lee, H. J., & Shin, J. H. (2009). Effects of goal relations on self-regulated learning in multiple goal setting. Korean Educational Psychology Association, 23, 261-278.|
|40.||Lee, J. I., & Kwon, J. H. (2015). Effects of mindfulness based cognitive therapy on recovery of gambling addicts: A case study. Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Korea, 15, 1-28.|
|41.||Lee, S. K. (2001). The status quo teenager’s internet use, depression and its relation with self-control (master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/search/detail/DetailView.do?p_mat_type=be54d9b8bc7cdb09&control_no=4ddf34f1e06fe2b8.|
|42.||Lee, S. J. (2013). Exploration and verification of risk factors on smartphone addiction: Focused on personality and use motivations (master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/search/detail/DetailView.do?p_mat_type=be54d9b8bc7cdb09&control_no=1f02b97adac7605bffe0bdc3ef48d419.|
|43.||Lim, Y. J., Ko, Y. G., Shin, H. C., & Cho, Y. (2012). Psychometric evaluation of the mental health continuum-short form (MHC-SF) in South Koreans. Korean Journal of Psychology: General, 31, 369-386.|
|44.||Manotas, M., Segura, C., Eraso, M., Oggins, J., & McGovern, K. (2014). Association of brief mindfulness training with reductions in perceived stress and distress in Colombian health care professionals. International Journal of Stress Management, 21, 207-225.
|45.||Marks, I. (1986). Behavioural psychotherapy: Maudsley pocket book of clinical management. Bristol, England: John Wright.|
|46.||Moon, J. S., & Han, G. S. (2012). Relationship of mindfulnessand psychological well-being: Mediational effects of the imagination awareness and the decentering. Korean Journal of Psychology: General, 31, 93-110.|
|47.||Nam, K. B. (2018). Meta-analysis on the effects of the group counseling program for smart-phone addiction (doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/search/detail/DetailView.do?p_mat_type=be54d9b8bc7cdb09&control_no=4b0ef8cd69de516dffe0bdc3ef48d419.|
|48.||National Information Society Agency. (2011). Development of scale for smartphone addiction. Seoul, Korea: National Information Society Agency.|
|49.||National Information Society Agency. (2014). 2013 Result of internet addiction research. Seoul, Korea: National Information Society Agency.|
|50.||Olejnik, S., & Algina, J. (2003). Generalized eta and omega squared statistics: Measures of effect size for some common research designs. Psychological Methods, 8, 434.
|51.||One, D. R., & Kim, K. H. (2009). The effects of mindfulness and meaningfulness of task on experience of meaning, autonomous regulation of behavior and emotional well-being. The Korean Journal of Health Psychology, 14, 815-829.
|52.||Oh, E. J. (2009). Understanding of vipassana meditation in cognitive Science: Within the framework of the addiction care (master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/search/detail/DetailView.do?p_mat_type=be54d9b8bc7cdb09&control_no=d3b3fef48c99a2e8ffe0bdc3ef48d419.|
|53.||Park, E. M. & Park, K. H. (2014). The mediating effects of depression and aggression on the relationship between perceived parental rearing attitudes and smartphone addiction: A focus on gender differences. Journal of Korean Association for Play Therapy, 17, 209-224.|
|54.||Safran, J. D., & Segal, Z. V. (1990). Interpersonal processes in cognitive therapy. Notthvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.|
|55.||Schwarzer, R., Diehl, M., & Schmitz, G. S. (1999). Self-regulation. Retrieved from http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~health/selfreg.htm.|
|56.||Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., & Teasdale, J. D. (2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: A new approach to relapse prevention. New York: Guilford Press.|
|57.||Seo, A. J. (2013). Effects of high school student’s self-control and stress- coping styles on smart-phone use (master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/search/detail/DetailView.do?p_mat_type=be54d9b8bc7cdb09&control_no=d6c436ab6b9f1212ffe0bdc3ef48d419.|
|58.||Shapiro, S. L., Carlson, L. E., Astin, J. A., & Freedman, B. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62, 373-386.
|59.||Shin, J. S. (2015). Teenagers peer relationship stress, academic stress, stress coping, effects of smartphone addiction (master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/search/detail/DetailView.do?p_mat_type=be54d9b8bc7cdb09&control_no=3da7e8dc221c03b9ffe0bdc3ef48d419.|
|60.||Shin, K. W., Kim, D. I., & Jung, Y. J. (2011). Development of korean smartphone addiction proneness scale for youth and adults. Seoul: National Information Society Agency.|
|61.||Smits, J. A. J., Powers, M. B., Cho, Y. R., & Telch, M. J. (2004). Mechanism of change in cognitive-behavioral treatment of panic disorder: Evidence for the fear of fear mediational hypothesis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 646-652.
|62.||Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation models. Sociological Methodology, 13, 290-312.
|63.||Son, H. B. (2018). The effects of the mindfulness-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (MBCT) program on loss of control, craving, mindfulness level in self-regulation of smartphone addictive tendencies (master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/search/detail/DetailView.do?p_mat_type=be54d9b8bc7cdb09&control_no=7e0f43f417e8d247ffe0bdc3ef48d419.|
|64.||Steketee, G., & Chambless, D. L. (1992). Methodological issues in prediction of treatment outcome. Clinical Psychology Review, 12, 387-400.
|65.||Yoo, T. J., & Kim, S. S. (2015). Impact of perceived parenting styles on depression and smartphone addition in college students. Journal of Korean Academy of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 24, 127-135.