Korean Clinical Psychology Association
[ Original Article ]
Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology - Vol. 40, No. 3, pp.269-279
ISSN: 1229-0335 (Print) 2733-4538 (Online)
Print publication date 30 Aug 2021
Received 31 May 2021 Revised 16 Aug 2021 Accepted 17 Aug 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.15842/kjcp.2021.40.3.008

인지적 정서조절 방략과 촉발사건이 전위된 공격성에 미치는 영향

이윤선 ; 김근향
대구대학교 심리학과
Effects of Cognitive Emotional Regulation Strategies and Triggering Event on Displaced Aggression
YoonSun Lee ; Keun-Hyang Kim
Department of Psychology, Daegu University, Daegu, Korea

Correspondence to: Keun-Hyang Kim, Department of Psychology Daegu University, 201 Daegudaero, Jillyang, Gyeongsan, Korea; E-mail: kh.kim@daegu.ac.kr This paper is based on the first author’s master’s thesis research. And the part of the present study was presented as a poster paper at the Korean Clinical Psychology Association, October, 2016.


© 2021 Korean Clinical Psychology Association

초록

본 연구의 목적은 부정적인 평가 피드백을 받는 좌절상황에서 인지적 정서조절방략(반추/인지적 재평가/주의전환)의 처치와 촉발사건의 수준이 전위된 공격성에 미치는 영향을 실험 연구를 통해 검증하는 것이다. 이를 위해 대학생 참가자(114명)는 본인이 작성한 에세이에 대한 부정적인 평가 결과를 받음으로써 좌절상황을 경험하게 되고, 인지적 정서조절방략(반추/인지적 재평가/주의전환), 촉발자극(있음/없음)조건으로 무선 할당된다. 이후 참가자에게 부정적 평가로 좌절을 경험하게 한 다른 참가자(촉발 자극 있음/없음 제공자)가 풀게 될 문제 난이도를 정하도록 하였다. 이때 얼마나 많은 고난이도 문제를 선택하는지에 따라 전위된 공격성의 정도를 측정하였다. 분석 결과, 세 가지의 인지적 정서조절방략에서 촉발사건 ‘없음’ 조건보다 촉발사건 ‘있음’ 조건에서 전위된 공격성이 높았고, 반추가 인지적 재평가, 주의전환보다 전위된 공격성이 높게 나타났다. 특히, 사소한 수준의 촉발사건을 경험한 조건에서, 인지적 재평가와 주의전환은 반추보다 더 낮은 수준의 전위된 공격성이 나타나, 인지적 정서조절 방략과 촉발사건 간의 상호작용 효과가 확인되었다. 그리고 반추가 인지적 재평가와 주의전환보다 유의하게 높은 전위된 공격성을 보였고, 인지적 재평가와 주의 전환 간에는 전위된 공격성에 유의한 차이를 나타내지 않았다. 끝으로 전위된 공격성에 대한 시사점과 연구 방향이 논의되었다.

Abstract

The aim of the present experimental study was to examine the effects of cognitive emotional regulation strategies (rumination, cognitive reappraisal, distraction) and triggering event on displaced aggression. The participants (n=114) was manipulated by providing a fake negative feedback on participant’s own essay regardless of the excellence of their writings. Next, participants were randomly assignment to one of the following groups: rumination, cognitive reappraisal, distraction. Then manipulated by the presence or absence of triggering event. Finally, displaced aggression was assessed by an opportunity to harm another person’s (given the triggering event) chance to earn money, allowing aggressiveness to be operationalized through the assignment of more difficult problems to another person. ANOVA results of the study (n=81) revealed the significant main effects of cognitive emotional regulation strategy and triggering event, as well as interaction effect of cognitive emotional regulation strategy and triggering event was significant. That is, Participants in the rumination group expressed higher displaced aggression than those in the cognitive reappraisal and distraction groups when they experiencing the triggering event. And there was no significant difference between cognitive reappraisal and distraction groups. The limitations of the study and implications for future research are discussed.

Keywords:

displaced aggression, triggering event, rumination, cognitive reappraisal, distraction

키워드:

전위된 공격성, 촉발사건, 반추, 인지적 재평가, 주의전환

Author contributions statement

Yoonsun Lee, a graduate student at Daegu University who is now a clinical psychology intern at Daedong Hospital, collected and analyzed data, and led manuscript preparation. Keun-Hyang Kim, professor at Daegu University, served as supervised the research process. All authors provided critical feedback, participated in revision of the manuscript, and approved the final submission.

References

  • Baron, R. A., & Bell, P. A. (1975). Aggression and heat: Mediating effects of prior provocation and exposure to an aggressive model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 825-832. [https://doi.org/10.1037/h0076647]
  • Berkowitz, L. (1989). Frustration-aggression hypothesis: Examination and reformulation. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 59-73. [https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.106.1.59]
  • Berkowitz, L. (1990). On the formation and regulation of anger and aggression: A cognitive-neoassociationistic analysis. American Psychologist, 45, 494-503. [https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.45.4.494]
  • Berkowitz, L. (1993). Aggression: Its causes, consequences, and control. New York, NY: Mcgraw-Hill Book Company.
  • Blake, K. R., Hopkins, R. E., Sprunger, J. G., Eckhardt, C. I., Denson, T. F. (2018). Relationship quality and cognitive reappraisal moderate the effects of negative urgency on behavioral inclinations toward aggression and intimate partner violence. Psychology of Violence, 8, 218-228. [https://doi.org/10.1037/vio0000121]
  • Brosschot, J. F., Gerin, W., & Thayer, J. F. (2006). The perseverative cognition hypothesis: A review of worry, prolonged stress-related physiological activation, and health. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 60, 113-124. [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2005.06.074]
  • Bushman, B. J., Bonacci, A. M., Pedersen, W. C., Vasquez, E. A., & Miller, N. (2005). Chewing on it can chew you up: Effects of rumination on triggered displaced aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 969-983. [https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.88.6.969]
  • Denson, T. F., Pedersen, W. C., & Miller, N. (2006). The displaced aggression questionnaire. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 1032-1051. [https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.90.6.1032]
  • Denson, T. F., Moulds, M. L., & Grisham, J. R. (2012). The effects of analytical rumination, reappraisal, and distraction on anger experience. Behavior Therapy, 43, 355-364. [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2011.08.001]
  • DiGiuseppe, R., Trafrate, R. C. (2003). Anger treatment for adults: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 70-84. [https://doi.org/10.1093/clipsy.10.1.70]
  • Dollard, J., Miller, N. E., Doob, L. W., Mowrer, O. H., & Sears, R. R. (1939). Frustration and aggression. New Haven, Conn: Yale University Press. [https://doi.org/10.1037/10022-000]
  • Duncan, B. L. (1976). Differential social perception and attribution of intergroup violence: Testing the lower limits of stereotyping of Blacks. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 590-598. [https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.34.4.590]
  • Fabiansson, E. C., Denson, T. F., Moulds, M. L., Grisham, J. R., & Schira, M. M. (2012). Don't look back in anger: Neural correlates of reappraisal, analytical rumination, and angry rumination during recall of an anger-inducing autobiographical memory. NeuroImage, 59, 2974-2981. [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.09.078]
  • Garnefski, N., & Kraaij, V. (2006). Relationships between cognitive emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms: A comparative study of five specific samples. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 1659-1669. [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2005.12.009]
  • Gross, J. J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General Psychology, 2, 271-299. [https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.2.3.271]
  • Gross, J. J. (2001). Emotion regulation in adulthood: Timing is everything. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10, 214-219. [https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.00152]
  • Gross, J. J. (2002). Emotion regulation: Affective, cognitive, and social consequences. Psychophysiology, 39, 281-291. [https://doi.org/10.1017/S0048577201393198]
  • Gross, J. J. (2008). Emotion regulation. Lewis, M., Jeannette M. Haviland-Jones, J. M., Barrett, L.F(Ed), Handbook of emotions. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Higgins, E. T., & King, G. A. (1981). Accessibility of social constructs: Information processing consequences if Individual and contextual Variability. In Nancy Cantor and John F. Kihlstrom (Eds.), Personality, Cognitive, and Social Interaction, 69-121. Oxfordshire, Routledge.
  • Hovland, C. I., & Sears, R. R. (1940). Minor studies of aggression: VI. Correlation of lynchings with economic indices. The Journal of Psychology, 9, 301-310. [https://doi.org/10.1080/00223980.1940.9917696]
  • Hwang, J. Y. (2017). The mechanism of displaced aggression by social exclusion: Effect of self-focused rumination and triggering event (Unpublished master’s thesis). Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea.
  • Hwang, S. J., & Park, K. H. (2014). Exploratory study on the displaced aggression in adolescents with depressive-conduct disorder tendency. The Korean Journal of Health Psychology, 19, 1125-1144. [https://doi.org/10.17315/kjhp.2014.19.4.013]
  • John, O. P., & Gross, J. J. (2004). Healthy and unhealthy emotion regulation: Personality processes, individual differences, and life span development. Journal of Personality, 72, 1301-1334. [https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2004.00298.x]
  • Kim, S. J., Kim, J. H., & Youn, S. C. (2010). Validation of the Korean-Ruminative Response Scale(K-RRS). Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 29, 1-19. [https://doi.org/10.15842/kjcp.2010.29.1.001]
  • Lazarus, R. S. (1984). On the primacy of cognition. American Psychologist, 39, 124-129. [https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.39.2.124]
  • Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Progress on a cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotion. American Psychologist, 46, 819-834. [https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.46.8.819]
  • Lazarus, R. S., & Alfert, E. (1964). Short-circuiting of threat by experimentally altering cognitive appraisal. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 69, 195-205. [https://doi.org/10.1037/h0044635]
  • Leander, N. P., & Chartrand, T. L. (2017). On thwarted goals and displaced aggression: A compensatory competence model. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 72, 88-100. [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2017.04.010]
  • Lee, S. I., & Lee, H. J. (2018). Affect labeling reduces emotional eating behaviors among female undergraduates with bulimic tendencies: Comparisons with cognitive reappraisal and psychological education. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 37, 91-103. [https://doi.org/10.15842/kjcp.2018.37.1.008]
  • Lee, H. Y., & Seok, D. H. (2017). Effects of evaluation feedback, social status of the target and anonymity on displaced aggression. Social Science Research Institute, 41, 209-231. [https://doi.org/10.33071/ssricb.41.1.201704.209]
  • Lee, J. Y., & Kwon, S. M. (2006). Relationship between emotion regulation and psychopathology: Recent research trends and future research tasks. The Korean Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 18, 461-493.
  • Lim, H. E., & Han, S. Y. (2016). The influences of covert narcissism on displaced aggression in late childhood: The Mediating effects of internalized shame and rejection sensitivity. Korean Journal of Child Studies, 37, 129-143 [https://doi.org/10.5723/kjcs.2016.37.4.129]
  • Miller, N., Pedersen, W. C., Earleywine, M., & Pollock, V. E. (2003). A theoretical model of triggered displaced aggression. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 7, 75-97. [https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327957PSPR0701_5]
  • Morrow, J., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1990). Effects of responses to depression on the remediation of depressive affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 519-527. [https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.58.3.519]
  • Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Morrow, J. (1991). A prospective study of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster: the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 115-121. [https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.61.1.115]
  • Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Wisco, B. E., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). Rethinking rumination. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3, 400-424. [https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6924.2008.00088.x]
  • Novaco, R. W. (1977). Stress inoculation: A cognitive therapy for anger and its application to a case of depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45, 600-608. [https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.45.4.600]
  • Park, H. M. (2013). Concept and features of random crime: crimes against random people. Korean Journal of Public Safety and Criminal Justice, 22, 225-258.
  • Parkinson, B., & Totterdell, P. (1999). Classifying affect-regulation strategies. Cognition & Emotion, 13, 277-303. [https://doi.org/10.1080/026999399379285]
  • Pedersen, W. C., Gonzales, C., & Miller, N. (2000). The moderating effect of trivial triggering provocation on displaced aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 913-927. [https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.78.5.913]
  • Ray, R. D., Wilhelm, F. H., & Gross, J. J. (2008). All in the mind’s eye? Anger rumination and reappraisal. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 133-145. [https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.94.1.133]
  • Seo, M. J., & Park, K. H. (2013). The relations of psychological well-being, self-esteem, somatization, depression and displaced aggression. The Korean Journal of Health Psychology, 18, 163-181. [https://doi.org/10.17315/kjhp.2013.18.1.010]
  • Watkins, E., Moberly, N. J., & Moulds, M. L. (2008). Processing mode causally influences emotional reactivity: Distinct effects of abstract versus concrete construal on emotional response. Emotion, 8, 364-378. [https://doi.org/10.1037/1528-3542.8.3.364]
  • Watkins, L. E., DiLillo, D., & Maldonado, R. C. (2015). The interactive effects of emotion regulation and alcohol intoxication on lab-based intimate partner aggression. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 29, 653-663. [https://doi.org/10.1037/adb0000074]
  • Woo, S. K., & Lee, S. Y. (2018). After experiencing anger, emotional and behavioral effects: provocation-focused rumination, benefit-focused reappraisal, compassion-focused reappraisal (Unpublished master’s thesis). Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea.
  • Worchel, P. (1966). Displacement and the summation of frustration. Journal of Experimental Research in Personality, 1, 256-261.
  • Yoon, J. S., & Kim, M. J. (2013). Understanding so called ‘Do-not-ask Crime’: A psychological perspective. Korean Criminal Psychology Review, 9, 147-174.